Characterisation and application of fruit by-products as novel ingredients in gluten-free products
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O'Shea, Norah L.
University College Cork
The physicochemical and nutritional properties of two fruit by-products were initially studied. Apple pomace (AP) contained a high level of fibre and pectin. The isolated AP pectin had a high level of methylation which developed viscous pastes. Orange pomace also had high levels of fibre and pectin, and it was an abundant source of minerals such as potassium and magnesium. Due to the fibrous properties of orange pomace flour, proofing and water addition were studied in a bread formulation. When added at levels greater than 6%, the loaf volume decreased. An optimised formulation and proofing time was derived using the optimisation tool; these consisted of 5.5% orange pomace, 94.6% water inclusion and with 49 minutes proofing. These optimised parameters doubled the total dietary fibre content of the bread compared to the original control. Pasting results showed how orange pomace inclusions reduced the final viscosity of the batter, reducing the occurrence of starch gelatinisation. Rheological properties i.e. the storage modulus (G') and complex modulus (G*) increased in the orange pomace batter compared to the control batter. This demonstrates how the orange pomace as an ingredient improved the robustness of the formulation. Sensory panellists scored the orange pomace bread comparably to the control bread. Milled apple pomace was studied as a potential novel ingredient in an extruded snack. Parameters studied included apple pomace addition, die head temperature and screw speed. As screw speed increased the favourable extrudate characteristics such as radical expansion ratio, porosity and specific volume decreased. The inclusion of apple pomace had a negative effect on extrudate characteristics at levels greater than 8% addition. Including apple pomace reduced the hardness and increased the crispiness of the snack. The optimised and validated formulation and extrusion process contained the following parameters: 7.7% apple pomace, 150°C die head temperature and a screw speed of 69 rpm.
Gluten-free bread , Extruded snacks , Composition , Pectin , Apple pomace , Orange pomace
O'Shea, N. L. 2014. Characterisation and application of fruit by-products as novel ingredients in gluten-free products. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.