Geography - Journal Articles

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    Quantifying the distribution and potential biotic interactions between deer and flora using species distribution modelling
    (Taylor & Francis, 2023-07-03) O’Mahony, J.; Vanmechelen, A.; Holloway, Paul
    Invasive species are ranked as one of the leading drivers of global biodiversity loss. To mitigate their impact, we must understand the future risks caused by invasive species, particularly to flora of conservation concern. Here we used species distribution modelling (SDM) to project the current and future (RCP45 and RCP85 2050) distributions of four deer species and 13 plant species of conservation concern for the island of Ireland, quantifying changes in distributions and overlap. Large areas of suitable habitat for the deer species were predicted with high accuracy across all counties, with future climate scenarios identifying an expansion in sika deer distributions and a decrease in muntjac and fallow deer distributions. Red deer declined under the moderate climate change scenario but increased under the worst-case projection. Future projections predicted the (local) extinction of six (out of 13) endangered and vulnerable plant species. An expansion in distributions was observed for four plant species; however, these areas had large overlap with the future predictions of deer, placing further pressures on these plant species. These findings suggest that targeted conservation and management measures are required to alleviate the pressures on ‘at-risk’ plant species due to grazing from native and non-native deer.
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    Overcoming "crisis": Mobility capabilities and "stretching" a migrant identity among young Irish in London and return migrants
    (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2019-03-25) Lulle, Aija; Coakley, Liam; MacÉinrí­, Piaras
    We bring into dialogue the migrant identities of young Irish immigrants in the UK and young returnees in Ireland. We draw on 38 in-depth interviews (20 in the UK and 18 in Ireland), aged 20–37 at the time of interview, carried out in 2015–16. We argue that “stretching” identities – critical and reflective capabilities to interpret long histories of emigration and the neglected economic dimension – need to be incorporated into conceptualizing “crisis” migrants. Participants draw on networks globally, they choose migration as a temporary “stop-over” abroad, but they also rework historical Irish migrant identities in a novel way. Becoming an Irish migrant or a returnee today is enacted as a historically grounded capability of mobility. However, structural economic constraints in the Irish labour market need to be seriously considered in understanding return aspirations and realities. These findings generate relevant policy ideas in terms of relations between “crisis” migrants and the state.
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    Environmental forcing by submarine canyons: evidence between two closely situated cold-water coral mounds (Porcupine Bank Canyon and Western Porcupine Bank, NE Atlantic)
    (Elsevier, 2022-12) O'Reilly, Luke; Fentimen, Robin; Butschek, Felix; Titschack, Jürgen; Lim, Aaron; Moore, Niamh; O'Connor, Owen J.; Appah, John; Harris, Kim; Vennemann, Torsten; Wheeler, Andrew J.; Science Foundation Ireland; Geological Survey of Ireland; Marine Institute; Horizon 2020; Exzellenzcluster Ozean der Zukunft; Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft
    Within the Porcupine Bank Canyon (NE Atlantic), cold-water coral (CWC) mounds are mostly found clustered along the canyon lip, with individual disconnected mounds occurring nearby on the western Porcupine Bank. Remotely operated vehicle-mounted vibrocoring was utilized to acquire cores from both of these sites. This study is the first to employ this novel method when aiming to precisely sample two closely situated areas. Radiometric ages constrain the records from the early to mid-Holocene (9.1 to 5.6 ka BP). The cores were then subjected to 3D segmented computer tomography to capture mound formation stages. The cores were then further examined using stable isotopes and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, to constrain the paleoenvironmental variation that influenced CWC mound formation of each site. In total, mound aggradation rate in the Porcupine Bank Canyon and western Porcupine Bank was comparable to other Holocene CWC mounds situated off western Ireland. Results derived from multiproxy analysis, show that regional climatic shifts define the environmental conditions that allow positive coral mound formation. In addition, the aggradation rate of coral mounds is higher adjacent to the Porcupine Bank Canyon than on the western Porcupine Bank. Benthic foraminifera assemblages and planktic foraminiferal d13C reveal that higher quality organic matter is more readily available closer to the canyon lip. As such, we hypothesize that coral mound formation in the region is likely controlled by an interplay between enhanced shelf currents and the existence of the Eastern North Atlantic Water-Mediterranean Outflow Water-Transition Zone. The geomorphology of the canyon promotes upwelling of these water masses that are enriched in particles, including food and sediment supply. The higher availability of these particles support the development and succession of ecological hotspots along the canyon lip and adjacent areas of the seafloor. These observations provide a glimpse into the role that submarine canyons play in influencing macro and micro benthic fauna distributions and highlights the importance of their conservation.
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    Institutionalising changing conceptualisations of charity in Ireland: Charitable loan fund societies in Ireland 1729-1823
    (Liverpool University Press, 2022-09) O'Connor, Ray
    This article provides a detailed account of the origins, ethos and distribution of charitable loan fund societies in Ireland between 1729 and 1823. Charitable loan fund societies differed from other early financial institutions because they were area-based philanthropic societies that sought to animate a philosophy of poverty relief that advocated self-help and self-reliance. They were institutional articulations of early modern ideas about the role and nature of charity and how charitable acts should be administered. This article explains the origins of the first charitable loan fund established by Dean Jonathan Swift in St Patrick’s Parish, Dublin city and provides new insights into the origins of the second loan fund operated by the Dublin Charitable Musical Society. It traces the spread of thirty-two charitable loan fund societies across Ireland in the second half of the eighteenth century and the first two decades of the nineteenth century and places them in the wider context of the associational culture that emerged in Ireland from the mid-eighteenth century. It provides a very brief account of the origins and modus operandi of each charitable loan society and argues that a critical factor impeding the greater spread of the loan fund schemes was a lack of capital
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    The importance of connected and interspersed urban green and blue space for biodiversity: A case study in Cork City, Ireland
    (MDPI, 2021-11-02) Lambert, Luke; Cawkwell, Fiona; Holloway, Paul
    Urban green and blue space (UGBS) is becoming increasingly important for supporting biodiversity, with the spatial configuration of these landscapes essential to supporting a range of taxa. The role of UGBS for supporting biodiversity is well established, but there remains a lack of consensus on the importance of the overall landscape configuration and the scale at which these configurations are analyzed. Moreover, statistical models are often compounded by coarse representations of UGBS that ignore ‘invisible’ spaces (i.e., gardens and brownfield sites). Using Sentinel-2 satellite data and a maximum likelihood classification, a comprehensive landcover map of Cork City, Ireland was produced with reliable accuracy. FRAGSTATS was then used to capture landscape metrics regarding the spatial configuration of the study area, at a city scale and at three spatial extents for each field site. Field surveys at 72 locations captured data on bird species richness and abundance, before generalized linear models (GLMs) were parameterized between biodiversity metrics and the landscape metrics at 50, 100, and 200 m scales. The UGBS classification revealed that two-thirds of the city is composed of green and blue space. The field surveys recorded 62 species in the city, while GLMs revealed that green space was a significant driver in increasing species richness and abundance, while blue space produced inversions in coefficient estimates, suggesting a more nuanced relationship. The edge effect phenomenon was suggested to play a key role in increasing bird diversity, with a diversified and varied urban landscape important. The impact of scale also affected how blue space was viewed as a connective network within the city, particularly in relation to biodiversity metrics. Overall, this study has demonstrated that UGBS is intrinsically linked to bird diversity. Moreover, 38% of the species recorded are listed as species of conservation concern in Ireland, highlighting how urban spaces can provide habitats for vulnerable species and should inform discussion on the role of geography within the implementation of conservation and planning initiatives for urban environs.