Nanofabrication towards biophotonics

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Jones, Daniel
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University College Cork
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This thesis explores methods for fabrication of nanohole arrays, and their integration into a benchtop system for use as sensors or anti-counterfeit labels. Chapter 1 gives an introduction to plasmonics and more specifically nanohole arrays and how they have potential as label free sensors compared to the current biosensors on the market. Various fabrication methods are explored, including Focused Ion Beam, Electron Beam Lithography, Nanoimprint lithography, Template stripping and Phase Shift Lithography. Focused Ion Beam was chosen to fabricate the nanohole arrays due to its suitability for rapid prototyping and it’s relatively low cost. In chapter 2 the fabrication of nanohole arrays using FIB is described, and the samples characterised. The fabricated nanohole arrays are tested as bulk refractive index sensors, before a bioassay using whole molecule human IgG antibodies and antigen is developed and performed on the senor. In chapter 3 the fabricated sensors are integrated into a custom built system, capable of real time, multiplexed detection of biomolecules. Here, scFv antibodies of two biomolecules relevant to the detection of pancreatic cancer (C1q and C3) are attached to the nanohole arrays, and detection of their complementary proteins is demonstrated both in buffer (10 nM detection of C1q Ag) and human serum. Chapter 4 explores arrays of anisotropic (elliptical) nanoholes and shows how the shape anisotropy induces polarisation sensitive transmission spectra, in both simulations and fabricated arrays. The potential use of such samples as visible and NIR tag for anti-counterfeiting applications is demonstrated. Finally, chapter 5 gives a summary of the work completed and discusses potential future work in this area.
Immuno-sensor , Plasmonics , Nanohole array , Real time label-free biosensing , C1q & C3 antigen detection , Pancreatic cancer biomarkers
Jones, D. 2015. Nanofabrication towards biophotonics. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.