Loading effect in copper(II) oxide cluster-surface-modified titanium(IV) oxide on visible- and UV-light activities

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Jin, Qiliang
Fujishima, Musashi
Iwaszuk, Anna
Nolan, Michael
Tada, Hiroaki
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Cu(acac)2 is chemisorbed on TiO2 particles [P-25 (anatase/rutile = 4/1 w/w), Degussa] via coordination by surface Ti–OH groups without elimination of the acac ligand. Post-heating of the Cu(acac)2-adsorbed TiO2 at 773 K yields molecular scale copper(II) oxide clusters on the surface (CuO/TiO2). The copper loading amount (Γ/Cu ions nm–2) is controlled in a wide range by the Cu(acac)2 concentration and the chemisorption–calcination cycle number. Valence band (VB) X-ray photoelectron and photoluminescence spectroscopy indicated that the VB maximum of TiO2 rises up with increasing Γ, while vacant midgap levels are generated. The surface modification gives rise to visible-light activity and concomitant significant increase in UV-light activity for the degradation of 2-naphthol and p-cresol. Prolonging irradiation time leads to the decomposition to CO2, which increases in proportion to irradiation time. The photocatalytic activity strongly depends on the loading, Γ, with an optimum value of Γ for the photocatalytic activity. Electrochemical measurements suggest that the surface CuO clusters promote the reduction of adsorbed O2. First principles density functional theory simulations clearly show that, at Γ < 1, unoccupied Cu 3d levels are generated in the midgap region, and at Γ > 1, the VB maximum rises and the unoccupied Cu 3d levels move to the conduction band minimum of TiO2. These results suggest that visible-light excitation of CuO/TiO2 causes the bulk-to-surface interfacial electron transfer at low coverage and the surface-to-bulk interfacial electron transfer at high coverage. We conclude that the surface CuO clusters enhance the separation of photogenerated charge carriers by the interfacial electron transfer and the subsequent reduction of adsorbed O2 to achieve the compatibility of high levels of visible and UV-light activities.
Photocatalytic reaction , TiO2 photocatalysts , Oxygen vacancies , Transition metal , Iron oxide , Irradation , Dioxide , Semiconductor , Deposition , Particles
Jin, Q., Fujishima, M., Iwaszuk, A., Nolan, M. and Tada, H (2013) 'Loading effect in copper(II) oxide cluster-surface-modified titanium(IV) oxide on visible- and UV-light activities', Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117(45), pp. 23848-23857. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jp4085525
This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Journal of Physical Chemistry C, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jp4085525