Ribosomal frameshifting and transcriptional slippage: from genetic steganography and cryptography to adventitious use

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dc.contributor.author Atkins, John F.
dc.contributor.author Loughran, Gary
dc.contributor.author Bhatt, Pramod R.
dc.contributor.author Firth, Andrew E.
dc.contributor.author Baranov, Pavel V.
dc.date.accessioned 2016-10-17T15:52:43Z
dc.date.available 2016-10-17T15:52:43Z
dc.date.issued 2016-07-19
dc.identifier.citation Atkins, J. F., Loughran, G., Bhatt, P. R., Firth, A. E. and Baranov, P. V. (2016) ‘Ribosomal frameshifting and transcriptional slippage: from genetic steganography and cryptography to adventitious use’, Nucleic Acids Research, 44, pp. 7007-7078. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkw530 en
dc.identifier.volume 44 en
dc.identifier.issued 15 en
dc.identifier.startpage 7007 en
dc.identifier.endpage 7078 en
dc.identifier.issn 0305-1048
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/3187
dc.identifier.doi 10.1093/nar/gkw530
dc.description.abstract Genetic decoding is not ‘frozen’ as was earlier thought, but dynamic. One facet of this is frameshifting that often results in synthesis of a C-terminal region encoded by a new frame. Ribosomal frameshifting is utilized for the synthesis of additional products, for regulatory purposes and for translational ‘correction’ of problem or ‘savior’ indels. Utilization for synthesis of additional products occurs prominently in the decoding of mobile chromosomal element and viral genomes. One class of regulatory frameshifting of stable chromosomal genes governs cellular polyamine levels from yeasts to humans. In many cases of productively utilized frameshifting, the proportion of ribosomes that frameshift at a shift-prone site is enhanced by specific nascent peptide or mRNA context features. Such mRNA signals, which can be 5′ or 3′ of the shift site or both, can act by pairing with ribosomal RNA or as stem loops or pseudoknots even with one component being 4 kb 3′ from the shift site. Transcriptional realignment at slippage-prone sequences also generates productively utilized products encoded trans-frame with respect to the genomic sequence. This too can be enhanced by nucleic acid structure. Together with dynamic codon redefinition, frameshifting is one of the forms of recoding that enriches gene expression. en
dc.description.sponsorship Science Foundation Ireland [12/IP/1492, 13/1A/1853, 12/IA/1335]; National Institutes of Health (NIH), United States [RO3 MH098688]; Wellcome Trust, United Kingdom [106207 and 094423]; European Research Council (ERC) [646891]; Funding for open access charge: Wellcome Trust [106207]. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Oxford University Press en
dc.rights © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) en
dc.subject Genetic decoding en
dc.subject Ribosomal frameshifting en
dc.subject gene expression en
dc.subject mRNA en
dc.subject Ribosomal RNA en
dc.title Ribosomal frameshifting and transcriptional slippage: from genetic steganography and cryptography to adventitious use en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother John F. Atkins, Biochemistry, University College Cork , Cork, Ireland T: +353-21-490-3000. E: j.atkins@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.contributor.funder Science Foundation Ireland en
dc.contributor.funder National Institutes of Health en
dc.contributor.funder Wellcome Trust en
dc.contributor.funder European Research Council en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle Nucleic Acids Research en
dc.internal.copyrightchecked !!CORA!! en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress j.atkins@ucc.ie en


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© The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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