Environmental factors correlated with the metabolite profile of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir berry skins along a European latitudinal gradient

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Del-Castillo-Alonso, María Ángeles
Castagna, Antonella
Csepregi, Kristóf
Hideg, Éva
Jakab, Gabor
Jansen, Marcel A. K.
Jug, Tjaša
Llorens, Laura
Mátai, Anikó
Martínez-Lüscher, Johann
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Mature berries of Pinot Noir grapevines were sampled across a latitudinal gradient in Europe, from southern Spain to central Germany. Our aim was to study the influence of latitude-dependent environmental factors on the metabolite composition (mainly phenolic compounds) of berry skins. Solar radiation variables were positively correlated with flavonols and flavanonols and, to a lesser extent, with stilbenes and cinnamic acids. The daily means of global and erythematic UV solar radiation over long periods (bud break-veraison, bud break-harvest, and veraison-harvest), and the doses and daily means in shorter development periods (5–10 days before veraison and harvest) were the variables best correlated with the phenolic profile. The ratio between trihydroxylated and monohydroxylated flavonols, which was positively correlated with antioxidant capacity, was the berry skin variable best correlated with those radiation variables. Total flavanols and total anthocyanins did not show any correlation with radiation variables. Air temperature, degree days, rainfall, and aridity indices showed fewer correlations with metabolite contents than radiation. Moreover, the latter correlations were restricted to the period veraison-harvest, where radiation, temperature, and water availability variables were correlated, making it difficult to separate the possible individual effects of each type of variable. The data show that managing environmental factors, in particular global and UV radiation, through cultural practices during specific development periods, can be useful to promote the synthesis of valuable nutraceuticals and metabolites that influence wine quality.
Berry skins , Europe , Hydroxylation ratios , Latitudinal gradient , Phenolic composition , Solar radiation , Ultraviolet radiation , Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir
Del-Castillo-Alonso, M. Á., Castagna, A., Csepregi, K., Hideg, É., Jakab, G., Jansen, M. A. K., Jug, T., Llorens, L., Mátai, A., Martínez-Lüscher, J., Monforte, L., Neugart, S., Olejnickova, J., Ranieri, A., Schödl-Hummel, K., Schreiner, M., Soriano, G., Teszlák, P., Tittmann, S., Urban, O., Verdaguer, D., Zipoli, G., Martínez-Abaigar, J. and Núñez-Olivera, E. (2016) 'Environmental Factors Correlated with the Metabolite Profile of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir Berry Skins along a European Latitudinal Gradient', Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64(46), pp. 8722-8734. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.6b03272
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© 2016 American Chemical Society. This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jafc.6b03272