Design and analysis of RPL objective functions for multi-gateway ad-hoc low-power and lossy networks

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dc.contributor.author Farooq, Muhammad O.
dc.contributor.author Sreenan, Cormac J.
dc.contributor.author Brown, Kenneth N.
dc.contributor.author Kunz, Thomas
dc.date.accessioned 2017-11-20T15:22:28Z
dc.date.available 2017-11-20T15:22:28Z
dc.date.issued 2017-08-05
dc.identifier.citation Farooq, M. O., Sreenan, C. J., Brown, K. N. and Kunz, T. (2017) 'Design and analysis of RPL objective functions for multi-gateway ad-hoc low-power and lossy networks', Ad Hoc Networks, 65 (Supplement C), pp. 78-90. doi: 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.08.002 en
dc.identifier.volume 65 en
dc.identifier.startpage 78 en
dc.identifier.endpage 90 en
dc.identifier.issn 1570-8705
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/5071
dc.identifier.doi 10.1016/j.adhoc.2017.08.002
dc.description.abstract RPL is a standard routing framework for low-power and lossy networks (LLNs). LLNs usually operate in challenged conditions, therefore RPL can be adapted to satisfy requirements of a particular LLN. RPL facilitates this through objective functions (OFs). An OF is used to discover and maintain data forwarding paths based on the requirements of LLNs. In RPL, different OFs can use different routing metrics in different ways. In this paper, we design different OFs and analyse their impact on RPL performance in multi-gateway ad-hoc LLNs. In conjunction with the shortest hop-count, our designed OFs also use the following tie-breaking metrics: available bandwidth, delay, buffer occupancy, and ETX. Our OFs use the tie-breaking metrics on a greedy or an end-to-end basis. In our experimental analysis, we consider the impact of duty-cycling, number of gateways, and data traffic load on the OFs’ performance. Our results demonstrate that, generally speaking, the performance improves with an increase in the number of gateways. In the absence of duty-cycling, the greedy approach is better compared to the end-to-end approach, and using delay, buffer occupancy, and ETX metrics as the tie-breaking metrics in conjunction with the shortest hop-count metric yield the best performance. In a relatively high data traffic load, all OFs perform similarly. In duty-cycling mode, frequent changes in the parent node incur extra synchronization time between a sender and receiver. OFs that use the tie-breaking metrics on an end-to-end basis do not frequently change parent nodes, hence they demonstrate better performance. Furthermore, in duty-cycling mode, the shortest hop-count metric demonstrates the best performance compared to the other metrics. en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Elsevier
dc.rights © 2017 Elsevier B.V. This manuscript version is made available under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. en
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ en
dc.subject RPL en
dc.subject Multi-gateway LLN en
dc.subject Routing protocols en
dc.subject Low-power and lossy networks en
dc.subject IEEE 802.15.4 en
dc.title Design and analysis of RPL objective functions for multi-gateway ad-hoc low-power and lossy networks en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Cormac Sreenan, Computer Science, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: c.sreenan@cs.ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.check.info Access to this article is restricted until 24 months after publication by request of the publisher. en
dc.check.date 2019-08-05
dc.date.updated 2017-11-16T14:42:26Z
dc.description.version Accepted Version en
dc.internal.rssid 411920646
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle Ad Hoc Networks en
dc.internal.copyrightchecked No !!CORA!! en
dc.internal.licenseacceptance Yes en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress c.sreenan@cs.ucc.ie en


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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. This manuscript version is made available under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2017 Elsevier B.V. This manuscript version is made available under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 license.
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