Immunosensing procedures for carcinoembryonic antigen using graphene and nanocomposites

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Luong, John H. T.
Vashist, Sandeep Kumar
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Elsevier B.V.
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Two-dimensional (2D) graphene, sp2-hybridized carbon, and its two major derivatives, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have played an important role in immunoassays (IAs) and immunosensing (IMS) platforms for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), an implicated tumor biomarker found in several types of cancer. The graphene family with high surface area is functionalized to form stable nanocomposites with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and electron mediators. The capture anti-CEA antibody (Ab) with high density can be anchored on AuNPs of such composites to provide remarkable detection sensitivity, significantly below the level found in normal subjects and cancer patients. Electrochemical and fluorescence/chemiluminescence-quenching properties of graphene-based nanocomposites are exploited in various detection schemes. Future endeavors are envisioned for the development of an array platform with high-throughput for CEA together with other tumor biomarkers and C-reactive protein, a universal biomarker for infection and inflammation. The ongoing efforts dedicated to the replacement of a lab-based detector by a cellphone with smart applications will further enable cost-effective and frequent monitoring of CEA in order to establish its clinical relevance and provide tools for real-time monitoring of patients during chemotherapy.
Graphene , Graphene oxide , Reduced graphene oxide , Carcinoembryonic antigen , Immunoassay , Immunosensing platform , Electrochemical sensing , Chemiluminescence , Fluorescence quenching
Luong, J. H. T. and Vashist, S. K. (2017) ‘Immunosensing procedures for carcinoembryonic antigen using graphene and nanocomposites’, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 89(1), pp. 293-304. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2015.11.053
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