Water and wind power

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Rynne, Colin
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The inhabitants of most urban and rural communities in both Britain and Ireland during the later medieval period would have lived a relatively short distance from either a watermill or windmill. This chapter examines the most recent archaeological evidence for water- and wind-powered mills in later medieval Britain. The use of water power, in particular, was widespread in the later medieval period for a wide range of industrial activities. However, during this same period nearly all of the grain harvest was processed in either wind- or water-powered mills. The archaeological record also demonstrates a large degree of continuity, from the late Roman and early medieval periods, in the design of waterwheels and the mechanisms they actuated.
Watermill , Windmill , Dams , Weirs , Mill ponds , Millraces , Machinery , Millstones
Rynne, Colin (2018) 'Water and wind power', in Gerrard, C. and Gutiérrez, A. (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Later Medieval Archaeology in Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 491-510. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198744719.013.22
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