High pressure processing as a hurdle technology for development of consumer-accepted, low-salt processed meat products with enhanced safety and shelf-life
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O'Neill, Ciara M.
University College Cork
Processed meat manufacturers continuously seek new ways to reduce salt in meat products, without compromising consumer acceptability, but with enhanced safety and shelf-life. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to develop optimised low-salt processed meat products (frankfurters and cooked ham). A box-Behnken experimental design was used to assess independent factor effects; salt replacer (ArtisaltTM) (0-100%), high pressure processing (HPP) (0.1-600 MPa) and a mix of organic acids (InbacTM) (0.2-0.4%) on measured responses for overall sensory acceptability (OSA). Optimum parameters to maximise salt reduction and produce cooked ham with similar OSA associated with these product types were ArtisaltTM (53%), HPP (535 MPa) and InbacTM (0.3%), while optimum parameters for frankfurters were ArtisaltTM (48%), HPP (580 MPa) and InbacTM (0.3%). Total salt contents for optimised low-salt cooked ham and frankfurters were 1.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Hurdles applied extended the shelf-life of low-salt frankfurters or cooked ham by 51% or 97%, respectively, compared to control samples. Consumers (n=100) assessed optimised low-salt and control frankfurters and cooked hams in comparison to ‘gold standard’ commercially-available products on the Irish market and results showed that optimised low-salt processed meat products were as acceptable, or better, than ‘gold standard’ equivalents, thereby confirming the potential for use of the salt replacer ArtisaltTM and hurdles HPP and InbacTM to produce consumer-acceptable low-salt processed meat products with enhanced safety and shelf-life. A combination of HPP (300 MPa, 400 MPa or 500 MPa) and a mix of organic acids InbacTM (0.3%) were then used as hurdles to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork chops. Results showed that HPP ≥400 MPa increased (P<0.05) piri-piri marinade absorption which enhanced the flavour acceptability of the marinated pork chops; however, at 500 MPa, initial toughness was increased. The piri-piri marinade masked the whitening effect caused by HPP and also increased (P<0.05) the tenderness of the marinated pork chops over storage time. Combined effects of HPP at 300, 400 or 500 MPa and Inbac™ (0.3%) extended P<0.05) product shelf-life by 16, 22 and 29 days, respectively. Finally, the effects of griddle and steam cooking on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of HPP piri-piri pork chops were investigated. Results indicated that the acceleration of marinade by HPP modified product fatty acid profile by increasing Oleic acid, as this was the main fatty acid present in the piri-piri marinade. Overall, steam cooking resulted in better quality marinated pork chops with improved physicochemical and sensory characteristics compared to griddled marinated pork chops.
Processed meat , High pressure processing , Cooked ham , Frankfurters , Hurdle technology , Organic acids , Marination , Low-salt
O'Neill, C. 2018. High pressure processing as a hurdle technology for development of consumer-accepted, low-salt processed meat products with enhanced safety and shelf-life. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.