Fundamental studies on the reduction of fat and salt in laminated doughs
University College Cork
Puff pastry is well known for its layered, light and flaky structure. Additionally, it is a major contributor of fat and sodium intake in many countries. Excessive intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) and cholesterol but also sodium chloride (NaCl) are linked to various health risks such as obesity and hypertension. In turn, these may result in cardiovascular diseases (strokes, heart attacks, heart failure, etc.) which, according to the WHO, are the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Amongst others, ingredient reformulation and process adaptations of many foods, including puff pastry, are necessary to reduce dietary SAFA and sodium intake. Initially, response surface methodology (RSM) was successfully used to evaluate puff pastry quality for the development of a fat-reduced version. Process parameters, number of layers and final dough thickness, in combination with the amount of roll-in fat, were found to have a significant impact on internal and external structural quality parameters. Furthermore, four vegetable fat blends (FBs) with various ratios of palm stearin (PS) and rapeseed oil (RO), and with a low trans-fatty acid (TFA ≤ 0.6%) content were characterised and examined for their application in puff pastry production. A range of analytical methods, including solid fat content (SFC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), cone penetrometry and rheological measurements were used to characterise these FBs. Excellent baking results were achieved by FB1 and FB2, while FB2 simultaneously reached a SAFA reduction by 49% compared to the control containing FB1. Subsequently, it was determined how NaCl (0–8.4 g/100 g flour) impacts the structure and quality characteristics of puff pastry with full and reduced (-40%) fat content. Finally, the impact of sourdough (SD) (5, 10 and 20% flour basis) on the structure, flavour and quality characteristics of reduced fat (-40%) and salt (-30%) puff pastry were analysed. Results showed that fat and salt reduction impacted all investigated quality characteristics and the dough rheology. Nevertheless, through the employment of technological changes, a significant reduction of fat (-40%) and salt (-30%) in puff pastry was possible. The perception, visual impression or attributes like volume, firmness and flavour of the final products were not significantly affected. Finally, the flavour and texture of reduced-fat and -salt puff pastry was distinctly improved by SD addition. All results were confirmed by numerous sensory acceptance tests.
Salt reduction , Fat reduction , Puff pastry , Laminated dough , Sensory , Texture analysis
Silow, C. 2018. Fundamental studies on the reduction of fat and salt in laminated doughs. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.