Philosophy - Book Chapters

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    Compensation duties
    (Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2023-02-28) Mintz-Woo, Kian
    While mitigation and adaptation will help to protect us from climate change, there are harms that are beyond our ability to adapt. Some of these harms, which may have been instigated from historical emissions, plausibly give rise to duties of compensation. This chapter discusses several principles that have been discussed about how to divide climate duties â the polluter pays principle, the beneficiary pays principle, the ability to pay principle, and a new one, the polluter pays, then receives principle. The chapter introduces several challenges to these principles from the literature, before discussing which policies and institutions might be relevant to compensation, whether internationally (e.g., the Green Climate Fund) or intergenerationally (e.g., Broome and Foley's World Climate Bank). It also describes some recent successful climate cases that require both the Dutch government and a private firm to act in accordance with climate targets to avoid potential rights violations. Finally, it discusses one of the most important international concepts with respect to compensation: the Loss & Damage pillar of climate policy.
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    Belief distributions and the measure of social norms
    (Routledge - Taylor & Francis Group, 2023-08-11) Wang, Cuizhu; Viciana, Hugo; Gaitán, Antonio; Aguiar, Fernando
    This chapter has the goal of advocating for the Quadratic Scoring Rule as the indispensable tool in the operationalization of one of the most popular concepts of social norms in the literature. Section 1 reviews the concept of social norms developed by Bicchieri (2006, 2017) and argues that this theory offers an operational definition of social norms which focuses on beliefs (expectations) and preferences and allows for the possibility of their empirical investigation. Section 2 introduces the well-known Intentional Stance and Revealed Preference Theory as the best interpretive framework for the intentional concepts applied in Bicchieri’s conceptual analysis of social norms. On the basis of limitations arising from experimental work operating Bicchieri’s theory, section 3 introduces and defends the Quadratic Scoring Rule (QSR) for eliciting subjective belief distributions. Three different types of arguments are given to support the suitability of this method in the measuring of social norms.
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    Pride: Feeling good about myself because of you, because of us
    (Routledge, 2022-08-15) Sánchez, Alba Montes; Salice, Alessandro
    Pride is generally portrayed as an emotion of self-appraisal or as a self-conscious emotion. When feeling pride, one evaluates (and therefore is intentionally directed towards) oneself as commendable in light either of one's achievements (agential pride) or one's identity or character traits (non-agential pride). This account adequately captures a large number of emotional episodes, but it notably leaves aside the social dimensions of pride. This chapter offers a view of pride as social in two senses. First, in its more minimal understanding, pride is a social emotion insofar as it reveals that a dimension of ourselves is exposable to and depends on others. Second, in a more specific sense, some instances of pride can be 'hetero-induced'. Hetero-induced pride is pride that is elicited by significant others, and more specifically, by those others whom we perceive as members of the same group to which we also belong. The aim of this chapter is to map the terrain of current research about pride while putting particular attention on the way in which sociality impacts pride.
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    Fossil fuels
    (Routledge, 2022-07-29) Mintz-Woo, Kian; Hale, Benjamin; Light, Andrew; Lawhon, Lydia
    First, with respect to our personal relationship to fossil fuels, this chapter introduces arguments about whether we should or even can address our own usage of fossil fuels. This involves determining whether offsetting emissions is morally required and practically possible. Second, with respect to our relationship with fossil fuels at the national level, it discusses forms of local resistance, especially divestment and pipeline protesting. Finally, with respect to our relationship with fossil fuels at the international level, it considers two types of policy. On the one hand, some have argued that we should stop most trade in oil, on the basis that most oil that is traded is not subject to the control of citizens. On the other hand, some have argued that we should price the costs of fossil fuels so that there are market incentives to avoid digging them out of the ground.
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    Shared intentionality and the cooperative evolutionary hypothesis
    (Springer, 2020-06-24) Satne, Glenda; Salice, Alessandro
    One important application of theories of collective intentionality concerns the evolution of social understanding and even of human thinking (Tomasello M, A natural history of human thinking, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2014). A promising idea behind this approach is the Cooperative Evolutionary Hypothesis (CEH), namely, the idea that humans’ capacity for social cooperation is at the heart of their ability to understand others’ mental states and behavior, leading to an explanation of how humans came to share thoughts and language. However, some of the most popular defenses of CEH face important problems. In this paper, we take Tomasello’s account (J Soc Ontol 2(1):117–123, 2016); A natural history of human thinking. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2014; Origins of human communication. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2008) as a leading example of the CEH which faces such insurmountable problems. In particular, we argue that Tomasello’s analysis of cooperation and spontaneous help is problematic. We locate a source of such issues in the assumption that the right account of joint action and simple forms of shared intentionality is that which is offered by Bratman’s theory of shared intentions. The second part of the article proposes and defends an alternative framework for understanding shared intentionality that can help substantiate CEH.