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Recent advances in the understanding of the aetiology and therapeutic strategies in burning mouth syndrome: Focus on the actions of cannabinoids
Pereira, Sónia R.
Tello Velasquez, Johana
McKenna, Joseph P.
Downer, Eric J.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a neuropathic pain disorder associated with a burning sensation on oral mucosal surfaces with frequently reported xerostomia, dysgeusia and tingling or paraesthetic sensations. However, patients present no clinically evident causative lesions. The poor classification of the disorder has resulted in a diagnostic challenge, particularly for the clinician/dentist evaluating these individuals. Major research developments have been made in the BMS field in recent years to address this concern, principally in terms of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the disorder, in addition to therapeutic advancements. For the purpose of this review, an update on the pathophysiological mechanisms will be discussed from a neuropathic, immunological, hormonal and psychological perspective. This review will also focus on the many therapeutic strategies that have been explored for BMS, including antidepressants/antipsychotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, hormone replacement therapies, phytotherapeutic compounds and non-pharmacological interventions, overall highlighting the lack of controlled clinical studies to support the effectiveness of such therapeutic avenues. Particular focus is given to the cannabinoid system, and the potential of cannabis-based therapeutics in managing BMS patients.
Burning mouth syndrome , Cannabinoids , Cannabis , Endocannabinoid system , Hormonal , Immunological , Neuropathic orofacial pain , Psychological , Therapeutics
Pereira, S. R., Tello Velasquez, J., Duggan, S., Ivanisevic, B., McKenna, J. P., McCreary, C. and Downer, E. J. (2020) 'Recent advances in the understanding of the aetiology and therapeutic strategies in burning mouth syndrome: focus on the actions of cannabinoids', European Journal of Neuroscience. doi: 10.1111/ejn.14712
© 2020, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Pereira, S. R., Tello Velasquez, J., Duggan, S., Ivanisevic, B., McKenna, J. P., McCreary, C. and Downer, E. J. (2020) 'Recent advances in the understanding of the aetiology and therapeutic strategies in burning mouth syndrome: focus on the actions of cannabinoids', European Journal of Neuroscience, doi: 10.1111/ejn.14712, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14712. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.