Fast frequency response from energy storage systems - A review of grid standards, projects and technical issues

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Meng, Lexuan
Zafar, Jawwad
Khadem, Shafiuzzaman K.
Collinson, Alan
Murchie, Kyle C.
Coffele, Federico
Burt, Graeme
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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
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Electric power systems foresee challenges in stability due to the high penetration of power electronics interfaced renewable energy sources. The value of energy storage systems (ESS) to provide fast frequency response has been more and more recognized. Although the development of energy storage technologies has made ESSs technically feasible to be integrated in larger scale with required performance, the policies, grid codes and economic issues are still presenting barriers for wider application and investment. Recent years, a few regions and countries have designed new services to meet the upcoming grid challenges. A number of grid-scale ESS projects are also implemented aiming to trial performance, demonstrate values, and gain experience. This paper makes a review on the above mentioned aspects, including the emerging frequency regulation services, updated grid codes and grid-scale ESS projects. Some key technical issues are also discussed and prospects are outlined.
Frequency response , Energy storage , Generators , Power system stability , Frequency control , Frequency measurement , Time factors , Grid Code
Meng, L., Zafar, J., Khadem, S. K., Collinson, A., Murchie, K. C., Coffele, F. and Burt, G. (2019) 'Fast Frequency Response from Energy Storage Systems-A Review of Grid Standards, Projects and Technical Issues', IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, doi: 10.1109/TSG.2019.2940173
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