3D printed rechargeable aqueous and non-aqueous lithium-ion batteries: Evolution of design and performance

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Egorov, Vladimir
Gulzar, Umair
O'Dwyer, Colm
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Here we describe the modeling and design evolution of vat polimerized (Vat-P) stereolithographic apparatus (SLA) 3D printed coin cell-type aqueous and non-aqueous rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, cases and current collectors. We detail the rationale for design evolution that improved performance, handling and assembly of the printed batteries. Some guidance into the modeling, 3D printing process, material choice, chemical and electrochemical stability, assembly, sealing, and performance of 3D printed Li-ion batteries is outlined. 3D printed Li-ion batteries demonstrated promising results in terms of gravimetric capacity, rate capability, and capacity per unit footprint area compared to conventional coin cells in both aqueous and non-aqueous systems. For aqueous cells, the cell level capacity is a factor of 2–3x higher than similar metal coin cells due to the lighter weight and better rate response. We also outline design requirements for a Vat-P printed battery that are compatible with organic carbonate-based electrolytes, where the cell provides 115 mAh g−1 specific capacity using an LiCoO2–graphite chemistry, which is only ∼20% less than the maximum reversible capacity of LCO. Despite the challenges faced in optimizing the design and materials for 3D printed Li-ion batteries, this study provides valuable information for future research and development.
Li-ion batteries , Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) , Energy storage , Sustainable energy , Portable energy , SLA 3D printed batteries
Egorov, V., Gulzar, U. and O’Dwyer, C. (2023) ‘3d printed rechargeable aqueous and non-aqueous lithium-ion batteries: evolution of design and performance’, ECS Advances, 2(4), 040508 (10 pp). Available at: https://doi.org/10.1149/2754-2734/ad120c.
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