Iron intakes and status of 2-year-old children in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study
McCarthy, Elaine K.
Ní Chaoimh, Carol E.
Hourihane, Jonathan O'B.
Kenny, Louise C.
Irvine, Alan D.
Murray, Deirdre M.
Kiely, Mairead E.
Young children are at risk of iron deficiency and subsequent anaemia, resulting in long‐term consequences for cognitive, motor and behavioural development. This study aimed to describe the iron intakes, status and determinants of status in 2‐year‐old children. Data were collected prospectively in the mother–child Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study from 15 weeks' gestation throughout early childhood. At the 24‐month assessment, serum ferritin, haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume were measured, and food/nutrient intake data were collected using a 2‐day weighed food diary. Iron status was assessed in 729 children (median [IQR] age: 2.1 [2.1, 2.2] years) and 468 completed a food diary. From the food diary, mean (SD) iron intakes were 6.8 (2.6) mg/day and 30% had intakes < UK Estimated Average Requirement (5.3 mg/day). Using WHO definitions, iron deficiency was observed in 4.6% (n = 31) and iron deficiency anaemia in five children (1.0%). Following an iron series workup, five more children were diagnosed with iron deficiency anaemia. Twenty‐one per cent had ferritin concentrations <15 µg/L. Inadequate iron intakes (OR [95% CI]: 1.94 [1.09, 3.48]) and unmodified cows' milk intakes ≥ 400 mL/day (1.95 [1.07, 3.56]) increased the risk of low iron status. Iron‐fortified formula consumption was associated with decreased risk (0.21 [0.11, 0.41] P < 0.05). In this, the largest study in toddlers in Europe, a lower prevalence of low iron status was observed than in previous reports. Compliance with dietary recommendations to limit cows' milk intakes in young children and consumption of iron‐fortified products appears to have contributed to improved iron status at two years.
Birth cohort , Iron deficiency , Anaemia , Iron intakes , Food fortification , Cows' milk consumption
McCarthy, E. K., ní Chaoimh, C., Hourihane, J. O. B., Kenny, L. C., Irvine, A. D., Murray, D. M. and Kiely, M. (2017) 'Iron intakes and status of 2-year-old children in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study', Maternal & Child Nutrition, 13(3), e12320 (13 pp). doi:10.1111/mcn.12320
© 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: McCarthy, E. K., ní Chaoimh, C., Hourihane, J. O. B., Kenny, L. C., Irvine, A. D., Murray, D. M., and Kiely, M. (2017) Iron intakes and status of 2‐year‐old children in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 13: e12320, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12320. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.