Pushing the limits of kT/C noise in Delta-Sigma Modulators

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Date
2023-06-23
Authors
Kalogiros, Spyridon
Salgado, Gerardo
Lyden, Colin
McCarthy, Kevin
O’Connell, Ivan
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Springer Nature Ltd.
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Abstract
Thermal noise, which is sampled and aliases in-band in discrete-time systems, limits the achievable performance of switched-capacitor noise-shaping Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs). While the performance of such ADCs has advanced significantly over the last 20 years, as quantified by the Schreier figure of merit (FoMS), the theoretical limit of 192 dB remains unchallenged. Over that period, the envelope of ADC performance has advanced from a FoMS of 163 dB, 20 years ago, to 186 dB today, with a rate of advancement, corresponding to ADC performance, which is doubling every 1.6 years. However, this rate of advancement has started to slow in recent years. This chapter will review some of the recent advancements in relation to reducing the thermal noise in switched-capacitor Delta-Sigma Modulators. In addition, this chapter will address many of the challenges associated with breaking the 192 dB FoMS performance barrier.
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kT/C noise , Delta-Sigma Modulator , Thermal noise , Discrete-Time , Switched-Capacitor , Oversampling , Figure-of-Merit (FoM) , kT/C noise cancellation , Capacitive-Gain Amplifier (CGA) , DAC , Loop filter , Signal Transfer Function (STF) , Noise Transfer Function (NTF)
Citation
Kalogiros, S., Salgado, G., Lyden, C., McCarthy, K. and O’Connell, I. (2023) 'Pushing the limits of kT/C Noise in Delta-Sigma Modulators', in Harpe, P., Baschirotto, A. and Makinwa, K. A. (eds.) Biomedical Electronics, Noise Shaping ADCs, and Frequency References. Cham: Springer, pp. 203-223. doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-28912-5_11
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© 2023,the Editors and the Authors, under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023. This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of a chapter published as: Kalogiros, S., Salgado, G., Lyden, C., McCarthy, K. and O’Connell, I. (2023) 'Pushing the limits of kT/C Noise in Delta-Sigma Modulators', in Harpe, P., Baschirotto, A. and Makinwa, K. A. (eds.) Biomedical Electronics, Noise Shaping ADCs, and Frequency References. Cham: Springer, pp. 203-223, doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-28912-5_11. The final authenticated version is available online at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28912-5_11