Redox biology of myeloid leukaemias
University College Cork
Internal tandem duplication of FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase (FLT3-ITD) has been associated with an aggressive AML phenotype. FLT3-ITD expressing cell lines have been shown to generate increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA double strand breaks (dsbs). However, the molecular basis of how FLT3-ITD-driven ROS leads to the aggressive form of AML is not clearly understood. Herein, we observe that the majority of H2O2 in FLT3-ITD-expressing MV4-11 cells colocalises to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Furthermore, ER localisation of ROS in MV4-11 cells corresponds to the localisation of p22phox, a small membrane-bound subunit of NOX complex. Furthermore, we show that 32D cells, a myeloblast-like cell line transfected with FLT3-ITD, possess higher steady protein levels of p22phox than their wild type FLT3 (FLT3-WT)-expressing counterparts. Moreover, the inhibition of FLT3-ITD, using various FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors, uniformly results in a posttranslational downregulation of p22phox. We also show that depletion of NOX2 and NOX4 and p22phox, but not NOX1 proteins causes a reduction in endogenous H2O2 levels. We show that genomic instability induced by FLT3-ITD leads to an increase in nuclear levels of H2O2. The presence of H2O2 in the nucleus is largely reduced by inhibition of FLT3-ITD or NOX. Furthermore, similar results are also observed following siRNA knockdowns of p22phox or NOX4. We demonstrate that 32D cells transfected with FLT3-ITD have a higher level of DNA damage than 32D cells transfected with FLT3-WT. Additionally, inhibition of FLT3-ITD, p22phox and NOX knockdowns decrease the number of DNA dsbs. In summary, this study presents a novel mechanism of genomic instability generation in FLT3-ITD-expressing AML cells, whereby FLT3-ITD activates NOX complexes by stabilising p22phox. This in turn leads to elevated generation of ROS and DNA damage in these cells.
Redox , NADPH oxidase , Leukaemia , ROS , FLT3 , Genomic instability
Stanicka, J. 2014. Redox biology of myeloid leukaemias. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.