FREE - Fine-grained scheduling for reliable and energy-efficient data collection in LoRaWAN
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
LoRaWAN promises to provide wide-area network access to low-cost devices that can operate for up to ten years on a single 1000-mAh battery. This makes LoRaWAN particularly suited for the data collection applications (e.g., monitoring applications), where device lifetime is a key performance metric. However, when supporting a large number of devices, LoRaWAN suffers from a scalability issue due to the high collision probability of its Aloha-based MAC layer. The performance worsens further when using acknowledged transmissions due to the duty-cycle restriction at the gateway. For this, we propose FREE, a fine-grained scheduling scheme for reliable and energy-efficient data collection in LoRaWAN. FREE takes advantage of applications that do not have hard delay requirements on data delivery by supporting the synchronized bulk data transmission. This means data are buffered for transmission in scheduled time slots instead of transmitted straight away. FREE allocates spreading factors, transmission powers, frequency channels, time slots, and schedules slots in frames for LoRaWAN end-devices. As a result, FREE overcomes the scalability problem of LoRaWAN by eliminating collisions and grouping acknowledgments. We evaluate the performance of FREE versus different legacy LoRaWAN configurations. The numerical results show that FREE scales well and achieves almost 100% data delivery and the device lifetime is estimated over ten years independent of traffic type and network size. In comparison to poor scalability, low data delivery and device lifetime of fewer than two years for acknowledged data traffic in the standard LoRaWAN configurations.
Access protocols , Probability , Telecommunication network reliability , Telecommunication scheduling , Telecommunication traffic , Wide area networks , Device lifetime , Key performance metric , Fine-grained scheduling scheme , Energy-efficient data collection , Synchronized bulk data transmission , Scheduled time slots , LoRaWAN end-devices , FREE scales , Low data delivery , Acknowledged data traffic , Standard LoRaWAN configurations , FREE-fine-grained scheduling , Wide-area network access , Low-cost devices , Data collection applications , Monitoring applications , Legacy LoRaWAN configurations , Logic gates , Synchronization , Data collection , Schedules , Reliability , Uplink , Performance evaluation , Bulk data collection , LoRaWAN , Scalability , Scheduling
Abdelfadeel, K. Q., Zorbas, D., Cionca, V. and Pesch, D. (2019) 'FREE - Fine-grained scheduling for reliable and energy-efficient data collection in LoRaWAN', IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 7(1), pp. 669-683. doi: 10.1109/JIOT.2019.2949918
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