A study of silicon and germanium junctionless transistors
University College Cork
Technology boosters, such as strain, HKMG and FinFET, have been introduced into semiconductor industry to extend Moore’s law beyond 130 nm technology nodes. New device structures and channel materials are highly demanded to keep performance enhancement when the device scales beyond 22 nm. In this work, the properties and feasibility of the proposed Junctionless transistor (JNT) have been evaluated for both Silicon and Germanium channels. The performance of Silicon JNTs with 22 nm gate length have been characterized at elevated temperature and stressed conditions. Furthermore, steep Subthreshold Slopes (SS) in JNT and IM devices are compared. It is observed that the floating body in JNT is relatively dynamic comparing with that in IM devices and proper design of the device structure may further reduce the VD for a sub- 60 mV/dec subthreshold slope. Diode configuration of the JNT has also been evaluated, which demonstrates the first diode without junctions. In order to extend JNT structure into the high mobility material Germanium (Ge), a full process has been develop for Ge JNT. Germanium-on-Insulator (GeOI) wafers were fabricated using Smart-Cut with low temperature direct wafer bonding method. Regarding the lithography and pattern transfer, a top-down process of sub-50-nm width Ge nanowires is developed in this chapter and Ge nanowires with 35 nm width and 50 nm depth are obtained. The oxidation behaviour of Ge by RTO has been investigated and high-k passivation scheme using thermally grown GeO2 has been developed. With all developed modules, JNT with Ge channels have been fabricated by the CMOScompatible top-down process. The transistors exhibit the lowest subthreshold slope to date for Ge JNT. The devices with a gate length of 3 μm exhibit a SS of 216 mV/dec with an ION/IOFF current ratio of 1.2×103 at VD = -1 V and DIBL of 87 mV/V.
Germanium junctionless nanowire transistor
Yu, R. 2013. A study of silicon and germanium junctionless transistors. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.