Quantum behavior in mesoscopic systems

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Lo Gullo, Nicolino
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University College Cork
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In this thesis I present the work done during my PhD. The Thesis is divided into two parts; in the first one I present the study of mesoscopic quantum systems whereas in the second one I address the problem of the definition of Markov regime for quantum system dynamics. The first work presented is the study of vortex patterns in (quasi) two dimensional rotating Bose Einstein condensates (BECs). I consider the case of an anisotropy trapping potential and I shall show that the ground state of the system hosts vortex patterns that are unstable. In a second work I designed an experimental scheme to transfer entanglement from two entangled photons to two BECs. This work is meant to propose a feasible experimental set up to bring entanglement from microscopic to macroscopic systems for both the study of fundamental questions (quantum to classical transition) and technological applications. In the last work of the first part another experimental scheme is presented in order to detect coherences of a mechanical oscillator which is assumed to have been previously cooled down to the quantum regime. In this regime in fact the system can rapidly undergo decoherence so that new techniques have to be employed in order to detect and manipulate their states. In the scheme I propose a micro-mechanical oscillator is coupled to a BEC and the detection is performed by monitoring the BEC with a negligible back-action on the cantilever. In the second part of the thesis I give a definition of Markov regime for open quantum dynamics. The importance of such definition comes from both the mathematical description of the system dynamics and from the understanding of the role played by the environment in the evolution of an open system. In the Markov regime the mathematical description can be simplified and the role of the environment is a passive one.
Mesoscopic systems , Quantum coherence , Ultracold gas
Lo Gullo, Nicolino. 2013. Quantum behavior in mesoscopic systems. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.