The development of sustainable saltwater-based food production systems: a review of established and novel concepts

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Gunning, Daryl
Maguire, Julie
Burnell, Gavin M.
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The demand for seafood products on the global market is rising, particularly in Asia, as affluence and appreciation of the health benefits of seafood increase. This is coupled with a capture fishery that, at best, is set for stagnation and, at worst, significant collapse. Global aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of the food industry and currently accounts for approximately 45.6% of the world’s fish consumption. However, the rapid development of extensive and semi-extensive systems, particularly intensive marine-fed aquaculture, has resulted in worldwide concern about the potential environmental, economic, and social impacts of such systems. In recent years, there has been a significant amount of research conducted on the development of sustainable saltwater-based food production systems through mechanical (e.g., recirculatory aquaculture (RAS) systems) methods and ecosystem-based approaches (e.g., integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA)). This review article will examine the potential negative impacts of monocultural saltwater aquaculture operations and review established (RAS) and novel (IMTA; constructed wetlands; saltwater aquaponics) saltwater-based food production systems and discuss their (potential) contribution to the development of sustainable and environmentally-friendly systems.
Aquaculture , Constructed wetlands (CWs) , Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) , Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) , Hydroponics , Saltwater aquaponics
Gunning, D., Maguire, J. and Burnell, G. (2016) 'The Development of Sustainable Saltwater-Based Food Production Systems: A Review of Established and Novel Concepts', Water, 8(12), pp. 598. doi:10.3390/w8120598