Fundamental studies of sourdoughs fermented with Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum: influence on baking characteristics, sensory profiles and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free breads

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Wolter, Anika
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University College Cork
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The application of sourdough can improve texture, structure, nutritional value, staling rate and shelf life of wheat and gluten-free breads. These quality improvements are associated with the formation of organic acids, exopolysaccharides (EPS), aroma or antifungal compounds. Initially, the suitability of two lactic acid bacteria strains to serve as sourdough starters for buckwheat, oat, quinoa, sorghum and flours was investigated. Wheat flour was chosen as a reference. The obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium (LAB) Weissella cibaria MG1 (Wc) formed the EPS dextran (a α-1,6-glucan) from sucrose in situ with a molecular size of 106 to 107 kDa. EPS formation in all breads was analysed using size exclusion chromatography and highest amounts were formed in buckwheat (4 g/ kg) and quinoa sourdough (3 g/ kg). The facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (Lp) was identified as strong acidifier and was chosen due to its ubiquitous presence in gluten-free as well as wheat sourdoughs (Vogelmann et al. 2009). Both Wc and Lp, showed highest total titratable acids in buckwheat (16.8 ml; 26.0 ml), teff (16.2 ml; 24.5 ml) and quinoa sourdoughs (26.4 ml; 35.3 ml) correlating with higher amounts of fermentable sugars and higher buffering capacities. Sourdough incorporation reduced the crumb hardness after five days of storage in buckwheat (Wc -111%), teff (Wc -39%) and wheat (Wc -206%; Lp -118%) sourdough breads. The rate of staling (N/ day) was reduced in buckwheat (Ctrl 8 N; Wc 3 N; Lp 6 N), teff (Ctrl 13 N; Wc 9 N; Lp 10 N) and wheat (Ctrl 5 N; Wc 1 N; Lp 2 N) sourdough breads. Bread dough softening upon Wc and Lp sourdough incorporation accounted for increased crumb porosity in buckwheat (+10.4%; +4.7), teff (+8.1%; +8.3%) and wheat sourdough breads (+8.7%; +6.4%). Weissella cibaria MG1 sourdough improved the aroma quality of wheat bread but had no impact on aroma of gluten-free breads. Microbial shelf life however, was not prolonged in any of the breads regardless of the starter culture used. Due to the high prevalence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus particular amongst coeliac patients, glycaemic control is of great (Berti et al. 2004). The in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free breads with and without sourdough addition was analysed to predict the GI (pGI). Sourdough can decrease starch hydrolysis in vitro, due to formation of resistant starch and organic acids. Predicted GI of gluten-free control breads were significantly lower than for the reference white wheat bread (GI=100). Starch granule size was investigated with scanning electron microscopy and was significantly smaller in quinoa flour (<2 μm). This resulted in higher enzymatic susceptibility and hence higher pGI for quinoa bread (95). Lowest hydrolysis indexes for sorghum and teff control breads (72 and 74, respectively) correlate with higher gelatinisation peak temperatures (69°C and 71°C, respectively). Levels of resistant starch were not increased by addition of Weissella cibaria MG1 (weak acidifier) or Lactobacillus plantarum FST1.7 (strong acidifier). The pGI was significantly decreased for both wheat sourdough breads (Wc 85; Lp 76). Lactic acid can promote starch interactions with gluten hence decreasing starch susceptibility (Östman et al. 2002). For most gluten-free breads, the pGI was increased upon sourdough addition. Only sorghum and teff Lp sourdough breads (69 and 68, respectively) had significantly decreased pGI. Results suggest that the increase of starch hydrolysis in gluten-free breads was related to mechanism other than presence of organic acids and formation of resistant starch.
Bioanalyzer , Gluten-free , Sourdough , Fermentation , Texture analyzer , Digital image analysis , Capillary electophoresis , In vitro starch digestibility , Glycaemic index , Aroma preference , Crumb structure , Crumb porosity , Dough rheology , Frequency sweeps , Microbial shelf life , Exopolysaccharide , Size exclusion chromatography , Oligosaccharide , Dextran
Wolter, A.. 2013. Fundamental studies of sourdoughs fermented with Weissella cibaria and Lactobacillus plantarum: influence on baking characteristics, sensory profiles and in vitro starch digestibility of gluten-free breads. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.