Operando color-coding of reversible lithiation and cycle life in batteries using photonic crystal materials

Thumbnail Image
Lonergan, Alex
Gulzar, Umair
Zhang, Yan
O'Dwyer, Colm
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
IOP Publishing
Research Projects
Organizational Units
Journal Issue
Innovative new materials are consistently emerging as electrode candidates from lithium-ion and emerging alternative battery research, promising high energy densities and high-rate capabilities. Understanding potential structural changes, morphology evolution, degradation mechanisms and side reactions during lithiation is important for designing, optimizing and assessing aspiring electrode materials. In-situ and operando analysis techniques provide a means to investigate these material properties under realistic operating conditions. Here, we demonstrate operando spectroscopic sensing using photonic crystal-structured electrodes that uses the optical transmission spectrum to monitor changes to the state of charge or discharge during lithiation, and the change to electrode structure, in real-time. Photonic crystals possess a signature optical response, with a photonic bandgap (or stopband) presenting as a structural color reflection from the material. We leverage the presence of this photonic stopband, alongside its intricate relationship to the electrode structure and material phase, to correlate electrode lithiation with changes to the optical spectrum during operation. We explore the optical and electrochemical behavior of a TiO2 anode in a lithium-ion battery, structured as a photonic crystal. The operando optical sensing demonstrated here is versatile and applicable to a wide range of electrochemical electrode material candidates when structured with ordered porosity akin to a photonic crystal structure.
Operando color-coding , Reversible lithiation , Cycle life , Batteries , Photonic crystal materials
Lonergan, A., Gulzar, U., Zhang, Y. and O’Dwyer, C. (2023) 'Operando color-coding of reversible lithiation and cycle life in batteries using photonic crystal materials', ECS Sensors Plus, 2(4), 045401 (11pp). https://doi.org/10.1149/2754-2726/ad15a0
Link to publisher’s version