Overview of optical and electrochemical alkaline phosphatase (ALP) biosensors: recent approaches in cells culture techniques
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which catalyzes the dephosphorylation process of proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules, can be found in a variety of tissues (intestine, liver, bone, kidney, and placenta) of almost all living organisms. This enzyme has been extensively used as a biomarker in enzyme immunoassays and molecular biology. ALP is also one of the most commonly assayed enzymes in routine clinical practice. Due to its close relation to a variety of pathological processes, ALP’s abnormal level is an important diagnostic biomarker of many human diseases, such as liver dysfunction, bone diseases, kidney acute injury, and cancer. Therefore, the development of convenient and reliable assay methods for monitoring ALP activity/level is extremely important and valuable, not only for clinical diagnoses but also in the area of biomedical research. This paper comprehensively reviews the strategies of optical and electrochemical detection of ALP and discusses the electrochemical techniques that have been addressed to make them suitable for ALP analysis in cell culture.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) , Optical biosensors , Electrochemical biosensors , Nanomaterials , Microarrays technology , Lab-on-chip technology
Balbaied, T. and Moore, E. (2019) 'Overview of Optical and Electrochemical Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) Biosensors: Recent Approaches in Cells Culture Techniques', Biosensors, 9(3), 102 (30pp). DOI: 10.3390/bios9030102