Novel processes, test structures and characterisation for future germanium technologies
University College Cork
In order to widely use Ge and III-V materials instead of Si in advanced CMOS technology, the process and integration of these materials has to be well established so that their high mobility benefit is not swamped by imperfect manufacturing procedures. In this dissertation number of key bottlenecks in realization of Ge devices are investigated; We address the challenge of the formation of low resistivity contacts on n-type Ge, comparing conventional and advanced rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and laser thermal annealing (LTA) techniques respectively. LTA appears to be a feasible approach for realization of low resistivity contacts with an incredibly sharp germanide-substrate interface and contact resistivity in the order of 10 -7 Ω.cm2. Furthermore the influence of RTA and LTA on dopant activation and leakage current suppression in n+/p Ge junction were compared. Providing very high active carrier concentration > 1020 cm-3, LTA resulted in higher leakage current compared to RTA which provided lower carrier concentration ~1019 cm-3. This is an indication of a trade-off between high activation level and junction leakage current. High ION/IOFF ratio ~ 107 was obtained, which to the best of our knowledge is the best reported value for n-type Ge so far. Simulations were carried out to investigate how target sputtering, dose retention, and damage formation is generated in thin-body semiconductors by means of energetic ion impacts and how they are dependent on the target physical material properties. Solid phase epitaxy studies in wide and thin Ge fins confirmed the formation of twin boundary defects and random nucleation growth, like in Si, but here 600 °C annealing temperature was found to be effective to reduce these defects. Finally, a non-destructive doping technique was successfully implemented to dope Ge nanowires, where nanowire resistivity was reduced by 5 orders of magnitude using PH3 based in-diffusion process.
Germanium , Characterization , Semiconductor , Contact , Doping , Thin body structures , Crystalline , Implantation
Shayesteh, M. 2014. Novel processes, test structures and characterisation for future germanium technologies. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.