The balance between the pro-inflammatory effect of plasma noradrenaline and the anti-inflammatory effect of neuronal noradrenaline determines the peripheral effect of noradrenaline
Crotty, Tom P.
Perfusion experiments on an isolated, canine lateral saphenous vein segment preparation have shown that noradrenaline causes potent, flow dependent effects, at a threshold concentration comparable to that of plasma noradrenaline, when it stimulates the segment by diffusion from its microcirculation (vasa vasorum). The effects caused are opposite to those neuronal noradrenaline causes in vivo and that, in the light of the principle that all information is transmitted in patterns that need contrast to be detected – star patterns need darkness, sound patterns, quietness – has generated the hypothesis that plasma noradrenaline provides the obligatory contrast tissues need to detect and respond to the regulatory information encrypted in the diffusion pattern of neuronal noradrenaline. Based on the implications of that hypothesis, the controlled variable of the peripheral noradrenergic system is believed to be the maintenance of a set point balance between the contrasting effects of plasma and neuronal noradrenaline on a tissue. The hypothalamic sympathetic centres are believed to monitor that balance through the level of afferent sympathetic traffic they receive from a tissue and to correct any deviation it detects in the balance by adjusting the level of efferent sympathetic input it projects to the tissue. The failure of the centres to maintain the correct balance, for reasons intrinsic or extrinsic to themselves, is believed to be responsible for degenerative and genetic disorders. When the failure causes the balance to be polarised in favour of the effect of plasma noradrenaline that is believed to cause inflammatory diseases like dilator cardiac failure, renal hypertension, varicose veins and aneurysms; when it causes it to be polarised in favour of the effect of neuronal noradrenaline that is believed to cause genetic diseases like hypertrophic cardiopathy, pulmonary hypertension and stenoses and when, in pregnancy, a factor causes the polarity to favour plasma noradrenaline in all the maternal tissues except the uterus and conceptus, where it favours neuronal noradrenaline, that is believed to cause preeclampsia.
Neuronal noradrenaline , Plasma noradrenaline
T.P. Crotty, The balance between the pro-inflammatory effect of plasma noradrenaline and the anti-inflammatory effect of neuronal noradrenaline determines the peripheral effect of noradrenaline, Medical Hypotheses (2014), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2014.08.026 [In Press]
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Medical Hypotheses. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Medical Hypotheses http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2014.08.026