Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements.

dc.contributor.authorFlynn, Albert
dc.contributor.authorKehoe, Laura
dc.contributor.authorHennessy, Áine
dc.contributor.authorWalton, Janette
dc.contributor.funderDepartment of Agriculture, Food and the Marineen
dc.date.accessioned2017-03-08T16:11:08Z
dc.date.available2017-03-08T16:11:08Z
dc.date.issued2016-08-08
dc.date.updated2017-03-08T16:06:44Z
dc.description.abstractPurpose: To show how safe maximum levels (SML) of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and supplements may be estimated in population subgroups. Methods: SML were estimated for adults and 7- to 10-year-old children for six nutrients (retinol, vitamins B6, D and E, folic acid, iron and calcium) using data on usual daily nutrient intakes from Irish national nutrition surveys. Results: SML of nutrients in supplements were lower for children than for adults, except for calcium and iron. Daily energy intake from fortified foods in high consumers (95th percentile) varied by nutrient from 138 to 342 kcal in adults and 40–309 kcal in children. SML (/100 kcal) of nutrients in fortified food were lower for children than adults for vitamins B6 and D, higher for vitamin E, with little difference for other nutrients. Including 25 % ‘overage’ for nutrients in fortified foods and supplements had little effect on SML. Nutritionally significant amounts of these nutrients can be added safely to supplements and fortified foods for these population subgroups. The estimated SML of nutrients in fortified foods and supplements may be considered safe for these population subgroups over the long term given the food composition and dietary patterns prevailing in the respective dietary surveys. Conclusions: This risk assessment approach shows how nutrient intake data may be used to estimate, for population subgroups, the SML for vitamins and minerals in both fortified foods and supplements, separately, each taking into account the intake from other dietary sources.en
dc.description.statusPeer revieweden
dc.description.versionPublished Versionen
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.identifier.citationFlynn, A., Kehoe, L., Hennessy, Á. and Walton, J. (2016) 'Estimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements', European Journal of Nutrition, 56(8), pp. 2529-2539. doi:10.1007/s00394-016-1288-8en
dc.identifier.doi10.1007/s00394-016-1288-8
dc.identifier.endpage2539
dc.identifier.issn1436-6215
dc.identifier.issued8
dc.identifier.journaltitleEuropean Journal of Nutritionen
dc.identifier.startpage2529
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/10468/3761
dc.identifier.volume56
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherSpringeren
dc.rights© The Authors 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/en
dc.subjectVitaminsen
dc.subjectMineralsen
dc.subjectSafe maximum levelsen
dc.subjectFortified foodsen
dc.subjectSupplementsen
dc.subjectIrish national nutrition surveysen
dc.titleEstimating safe maximum levels of vitamins and minerals in fortified foods and food supplements.en
dc.typeArticle (peer-reviewed)en
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