Studies in asymmetric and heterocyclic synthesis: I. chiral ketones II. Quinolones III. Trifluoromethylated pyrones

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Clarke, Sarah L.
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University College Cork
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This thesis is split into three sections based on three different areas of research. In the first section, investigations into the α-alkylation of ketones using a novel chiral auxiliary is reported. This chiral auxiliary was synthesised containing a pyrrolidine ring in the chiral arm and was applied in the preparation of α-alkylated ketones which were obtained in up to 92% ee and up to 63% yield over two steps. Both 3-pentanone and propiophenone based ketones were used in the investigation with a variety of both alkyl and benzyl based electrophiles. The novel chiral auxiliary was also successful when applied to Michael and aldol reactions. A diamine precursor en route to the chiral auxiliary was also applied as an organocatalyst in a Michael reaction, with the product obtained in excellent enantioselectivity. In the second section, investigations into potential anti-quorum sensing molecules are reported. The bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an antibiotic-resistant pathogen that demonstrates cooperative behaviours and communicates using small chemical molecules in a process termed quorum sensing. A variety of C-3 analogues of the quorum sensing molecules used by P. aeruginosa were synthesised. Expanding upon previous research within the group, investigations were carried out into alternative protecting group strategies of 2-heptyl-4-(1H)- quinolone with the aim of improving the yields of products of cross-coupling reactions. In the third section, investigations into fluorination and trifluoromethylation of 2-pyrones, pyridones and quinolones is reported. The incorporation of a fluorine atom or a trifluoromethyl group into a molecule is important in pharmaceutical drug discovery programmes as it can lead to increased lipophilicity and bioavailability, however late-stage incorporation is rarely reported. Both direct fluorination and trifluoromethylation were attempted. Eight trifluoromethylated 2-pyrones, five trifluoromethylated 2-pyridones and a trifluoromethylated 2-quinolone were obtained in a late-stage synthesis from their respective iodinated precursors using methyl fluorosulfonyldifluoroacetate as a trifluoromethylating reagent.
Asymmetric synthesis , Trifluoromethylation , Quinolones , Chiral auxiliary , Pyrone , Pyridone , Alpha alkylated ketone
Clarke, S. L. 2015. Studies in asymmetric and heterocyclic synthesis: I. chiral ketones II. Quinolones III. Trifluoromethylated pyrones. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.
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