Studies in asymmetric and heterocyclic synthesis: I. chiral ketones II. Quinolones III. Trifluoromethylated pyrones
Clarke, Sarah L.
University College Cork
This thesis is split into three sections based on three different areas of research. In the first section, investigations into the α-alkylation of ketones using a novel chiral auxiliary is reported. This chiral auxiliary was synthesised containing a pyrrolidine ring in the chiral arm and was applied in the preparation of α-alkylated ketones which were obtained in up to 92% ee and up to 63% yield over two steps. Both 3-pentanone and propiophenone based ketones were used in the investigation with a variety of both alkyl and benzyl based electrophiles. The novel chiral auxiliary was also successful when applied to Michael and aldol reactions. A diamine precursor en route to the chiral auxiliary was also applied as an organocatalyst in a Michael reaction, with the product obtained in excellent enantioselectivity. In the second section, investigations into potential anti-quorum sensing molecules are reported. The bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an antibiotic-resistant pathogen that demonstrates cooperative behaviours and communicates using small chemical molecules in a process termed quorum sensing. A variety of C-3 analogues of the quorum sensing molecules used by P. aeruginosa were synthesised. Expanding upon previous research within the group, investigations were carried out into alternative protecting group strategies of 2-heptyl-4-(1H)- quinolone with the aim of improving the yields of products of cross-coupling reactions. In the third section, investigations into fluorination and trifluoromethylation of 2-pyrones, pyridones and quinolones is reported. The incorporation of a fluorine atom or a trifluoromethyl group into a molecule is important in pharmaceutical drug discovery programmes as it can lead to increased lipophilicity and bioavailability, however late-stage incorporation is rarely reported. Both direct fluorination and trifluoromethylation were attempted. Eight trifluoromethylated 2-pyrones, five trifluoromethylated 2-pyridones and a trifluoromethylated 2-quinolone were obtained in a late-stage synthesis from their respective iodinated precursors using methyl fluorosulfonyldifluoroacetate as a trifluoromethylating reagent.
Asymmetric synthesis , Trifluoromethylation , Quinolones , Chiral auxiliary , Pyrone , Pyridone , Alpha alkylated ketone
Clarke, S. L. 2015. Studies in asymmetric and heterocyclic synthesis: I. chiral ketones II. Quinolones III. Trifluoromethylated pyrones. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.