Room temperature electromechanical and magnetic investigations of ferroelectric Aurivillius phase Bi5Ti3(FexMn1−x)O15 (x = 1 and 0.7) chemical solution deposited thin films
Pemble, Martyn E.
Whatmore, Roger W.
Aurivillius phase thin films of Bi5Ti3(FexMn1−x)O15 with x = 1 (Bi5Ti3FeO15) and 0.7 (Bi5Ti3Fe0.7Mn0.3O15) on SiO2-Si(100) and Pt/Ti/SiO2-Si substrates were fabricated by chemical solution deposition. The method was optimized in order to suppress formation of pyrochlore phase Bi2Ti2O7 and improve crystallinity. The structuralproperties of the films were examined by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Optimum crystallinity and pyrochlore phase suppression was achieved by the addition of 15 to 25 mol. % excess bismuth to the sols. Based on this study, 17.5 mol. % excess bismuth was used in the preparation of Bi2Ti2O7-free films of Bi5Ti3FeO15 on SrTiO3(100) and NdGaO3(001) substrates, confirming the suppression of pyrochlore phase using this excess of bismuth. Thirty percent of the Fe3+ ions in Bi5Ti3FeO15 was substituted with Mn3+ ions to form Bi2Ti2O7-free thin films of Bi5Ti3Fe0.7Mn0.3O15 on Pt/Ti/SiO2-Si, SiO2-Si(100), SrTiO3(100), and NdGaO3(001) substrates. Bi5Ti3FeO15 and Bi5Ti3Fe0.7Mn0.3O15thin films on Pt/Ti/SiO2-Si and SiO2-Si(100) substrates were achieved with a higher degree of a-axis orientation compared with the films on SrTiO3(100) and NdGaO3(001) substrates. Room temperature electromechanical and magnetic properties of the thin films were investigated in order to assess the potential of these materials for piezoelectric,ferroelectric, and multiferroic applications. Vertical piezoresponse force microscopy measurements of the films demonstrate that Bi5Ti3FeO15 and Bi5Ti3Fe0.7Mn0.3O15thin films are piezoelectric at room temperature. Room temperature switching spectroscopy-piezoresponse force microscopy measurements in the presence and absence of an applied bias demonstrate local ferroelectric switching behaviour (180°) in the films. Superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry measurements do not show any room temperature ferromagnetic hysteresis down to an upper detection limit of 2.53 × 10−3 emu; and it is concluded, therefore, that such films are not mutiferroic at room temperature. Piezoresponse force microscopy lithography images of Bi5Ti3Fe0.7Mn0.3O15thin films are presented.
X-ray diffraction , Atomic force microscopy , Bismuth compounds , Ferrites , Ferroelectric ceramics , Ferroelectric switching , Ferroelectric thin films , Liquid phase deposition , Magnetisation , Multiferroics , Piezoceramics , Piezoelectric thin films , Piezoelectricity , Scanning electron microscopy , Titanium compounds
Keeney, L., Groh, C., Kulkarni, S., Roy, S., Pemble, M. E. and Whatmore, R. W. (2012) ‘Room temperature electromechanical and magnetic investigations of ferroelectric Aurivillius phase Bi5Ti3(FexMn1−x)O15 (x = 1 and 0.7) chemical solution deposited thin films’, Journal of Applied Physics 112(2), 024101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4734983
© 2012 American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and AIP Publishing. The following article appeared in L. Keeney et al. J. Appl. Phys. 112, 024101 (2012) and may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4734983