Adequacy of vitamin D intakes in children and teenagers from the base diet, fortified foods and supplements

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dc.contributor.author Black, Lucinda J.
dc.contributor.author Walton, Janette
dc.contributor.author Flynn, Albert
dc.contributor.author Kiely, Mairead E.
dc.date.accessioned 2017-03-02T15:55:40Z
dc.date.available 2017-03-02T15:55:40Z
dc.date.issued 2013-02-27
dc.identifier.citation Black, L. J., Walton, J., Flynn, A. and Kiely, M. (2014) 'Adequacy of vitamin D intakes in children and teenagers from the base diet, fortified foods and supplements', Public Health Nutrition, 17(4), pp. 721-731. doi:10.1017/S1368980013000359 en
dc.identifier.volume 17 en
dc.identifier.issued 4 en
dc.identifier.startpage 721 en
dc.identifier.endpage 731 en
dc.identifier.issn 1368-9800
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/3732
dc.identifier.doi 10.1017/S1368980013000359
dc.description.abstract Objective: To describe vitamin D intakes in children and teenagers and the contribution from supplements and fortified foods in addition to the base diet. Design: Analysis of 7 d weighed food records collected during the Children's and Teens’ National Nutrition Surveys in Ireland. Food composition data for vitamin D were updated from international analytical sources. Setting: Nationally representative cross-sectional dietary surveys. Subjects: Children (n 594; 5–12 years) and teenagers (n 441; 13–17 years). Results: Median vitamin D intakes were 1·9, 2·1 and 2·4 μg/d in 5–8-, 9–12- and 13–17-year-olds, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 21, 16 and 15 % in 5–8-, 9–12- and 13–17-year-olds and median intakes in users ranged from 6·0 to 6·7 μg/d. The prevalence of inadequate intakes, defined as the percentage with mean daily intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement of 10 μg/d, ranged from 88 to 96 % in supplement users. Foods fortified with vitamin D, mainly breakfast cereals, fat spreads and milk, were consumed by 71, 70 and 63 % of 5–8-, 9–12- and 13–17-year-olds. Non-supplement users who consumed vitamin D-fortified foods had median intakes of 1·9–2·5 μg/d, compared with 1·2–1·4 μg/d in those who did not consume fortified foods. Conclusions: It is currently not possible for children consuming the habitual diet to meet the US Institute of Medicine dietary reference intake for vitamin D. In the absence of nationally representative 25-hydroxyvitamin D data in children, the implications of this observation for prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and health consequences are speculative. en
dc.description.sponsorship European Commission (RTD Programme ‘Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources’, within the 6th Framework Programme (contract no. FP6-036196-2 EURRECA: EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned)) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Cambridge University Press en
dc.rights © The Authors 2013. Published by Cambridge University Press (CUP) on behalf of The Nutrition Society en
dc.subject Vitamin D en
dc.subject Intakes en
dc.subject Children en
dc.title Adequacy of vitamin D intakes in children and teenagers from the base diet, fortified foods and supplements en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Janette Walton, Firm Programme, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: janette.walton@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.date.updated 2017-03-02T15:01:36Z
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.internal.rssid 210003326
dc.internal.pmid 23442310
dc.contributor.funder Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine en
dc.contributor.funder Sixth Framework Programme en
dc.contributor.funder European Commission en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle Public Health Nutrition en
dc.internal.copyrightchecked No !!CORA!! en
dc.internal.licenseacceptance Yes en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress janette.walton@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress a.flynn@ucc.ie en


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