Paediatric inflammatory bowel disease and its relationship with the microbiome

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Fitzgerald, R. S.
Sanderson, Ian R.
Claesson, Marcus J.
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Paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the digestive tract, comprising of Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and, where classification is undetermined, inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU). Paediatric IBD incidence is increasing globally, with prevalence highest in the developed world. Though no specific causative agent has been identified for paediatric IBD, it is believed that a number of factors may contribute to the development of the disease, including genetics and the environment. Another potential component in the development of IBD is the microbiota in the digestive tract, particularly the gut. While the exact role that the microbiome plays in IBD is unclear, many studies acknowledge the complex relationship between the gut bacteria and pathogenesis of IBD. In this review, we look at the increasing number of studies investigating the role the microbiome and other biomes play in paediatric patients with IBD, particularly changes associated with IBD, varying disease states, and therapeutics. The paediatric IBD microbiome is significantly different to that of healthy children, with decreased diversity and differences in bacterial composition (such as a decrease in Firmicutes). Changes in the microbiome relating to various treatments of IBD and disease severity have also been observed in multiple studies. Changes in diversity and composition may also extend to other biomes in paediatric IBD, such as the virome and the mycobiome. Research into biome differences in IBD paediatric patients may help progress our understanding of the aetiology of the disease.
Gut microbiota , Microbiome , Paediatric inflammatory bowel disease , Ulcerative colitis , Review , Crohn’s disease
Fitzgerald, R. S., Sanderson, I. R. and Claesson, Marcus J. (2021) 'Paediatric inflammatory bowel disease and its relationship with the microbiome', Microbial Ecology, 82, pp. 833–844. doi: 10.1007/s00248-021-01697-9
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