Summary outcomes of the ODIN project on food fortification for vitamin D deficiency prevention
Kiely, Mairead E.
Cashman, Kevin D.
Food-based solutions for optimal vitamin D nutrition and health through the life cycle (ODIN) was a cross-disciplinary, collaborative project, including 30 partners from 19 countries, which aimed to develop evidence-based solutions to prevent low vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) < 30 nmol/L) using a food-first approach. This paper provides a summary overview of some of the important ODIN outcomes and outlines some outstanding data requirements. In a study of almost 56,000 individuals, the first internationally standardised dataset of vitamin D status showed that 13% of EU residents overall, across a latitude gradient of 35° N to 69° N, had serum 25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L and 40% were < 50 nmol/L. The risk of low vitamin D status was several-fold higher among persons of ethnic minority. However, additional data from quality bio-banked sera would be required to improve these estimates. To address the question of dietary requirements for vitamin D among under-researched life-stage and population groups, four dose-response RCTs conducted in Northern Europe showed that vitamin D3 intakes of 8 and 13 μg/day prevented 25(OH)D decreasing below 30 nmol/L in white children and adolescents and 20 and 30 μg/day, respectively, achieved ≥50 nmol/L. Among white women during pregnancy, 30 μg/day is required to prevent umbilical cord 25(OH)D, representing new-born vitamin D status, below 25 nmol/L. While 8 μg/day protected white women in Finland at the 30 nmol/L cut-off, 18 μg/day was needed by women of East African descent to prevent 25(OH)D decreasing below 30 nmol/L during wintertime. Replicate RCTs are needed in young children <5 years and in school-age children, teens and pregnant women of ethnic minority. Using a series of food production studies, food-based RCTs and dietary modelling experiments, ODIN research shows that diverse fortification strategies could safely increase population intakes and prevent low vitamin D status. Building on this solid technological platform, implementation research is now warranted to scale up interventions in real-world settings to eradicate vitamin D deficiency.
Vitamin D , 25-hydroxyvitamin D , Food fortification , Dietary requirements , Dietary modelling , Biofortification
Kiely, M. and Cashman, K., 2018. Summary outcomes of the odin project on food fortification for vitamin D deficiency prevention. International journal of environmental research and public health, 15(11), (2342). DOI:10.3390/ijerph15112342