Future of antimicrobial peptides derived from plants in food application- a focus on synthetic peptides

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Shwaiki, Laila N.
Lynch, Kieran M.
Arendt, Elke K.
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Background: Food spoilage is caused by the undesirable growth of spoilage microorganisms in food products. This spoilage can lead to the global loss and waste of food. It is estimated that 1.3 billion tons of edible food produced for human consumption is either lost or wasted each year. Different preservation techniques have been developed to prevent this spoilage; however, the problem still occurs. Plants have the ability to produce compounds to protect themselves from the harsh environment. This has led to the exploitation of plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) which have been naturally extracted to study their activity against plant, food, and human pathogens. The chemical synthesis of such peptides has also grown in popularity over the years. Scope and approach: This review will focus on the different techniques that can be applied to generate peptide sequences, produce them through various chemical and biological methods, and predict their activity. These approaches are reviewed for their ability to develop synthetic peptides (based on plant AMPs) with greater antimicrobial activity and characteristics essential for their application as potential food preservatives. The development of these synthetic peptides with reduced toxicity to human cells, improved activity and stability can be a possible solution to the continuous fight against food spoilage and food waste. Key findings and conclusions: Synthetic antimicrobial peptides are being developed and modified in such a way to encompass potent and safe characteristics. This knowledge can be exploited for the potential application of such peptides in foods as preservative agents. A deeper understanding of their structure, function and mechanisms of action can be used to integrate them into food for the reduction of food spoilage, and consequently, of food waste. Although their development and production through the methods reviewed can generate peptides with suitable characteristics for reducing food spoilage, the cost of synthesis can be a drawback to such methods. Nevertheless, as the technologies improve and develop over time, the development of these synthetic AMPs can be fully exploited for their potential role in the food sector.
Lipid-transfer protein , Amino-acid-sequence , Antifungal peptide , Membrane interactions , Candida-albicans , Salt-resistance , Antibacterial , Defense , Analogs , Design
Shwaiki, L. N., Lynch, K. M., Arendt, E. K. (2021) 'Future of antimicrobial peptides derived from plants in food application-A focus on synthetic peptides', Trends In Food Science and Technology, 112, pp. 312-324. doi: 10.1016/j.tifs.2021.04.010