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Influence of emulsifier type on the spray-drying properties of model infant formula emulsions
Drapala, Kamil P.
Auty, Mark A. E.
Mulvihill, Daniel M.
O'Mahony, James A.
The objective of this study was to compare the drying performance and physicochemical properties of model infant formula (IF) emulsions containing 43, 96 and 192 g L−1 protein, oil and maltodextrin (MD), respectively, prepared using different emulsifier systems. Emulsions were stabilised using either whey protein isolate (WPI), whey protein hydrolysate (WPH; DH 8%), WPH + CITREM (9 g L−1), WPH + lecithin (5 g L−1) or WPH conjugated with maltodextrin (DE 12) (WPH-MD). Homogenised emulsions had 32% solids content and oil globules with mean volume diameter <1 μm. Powders were produced by spray-drying with inlet and outlet temperatures of 170 and 90 °C, respectively, to an average final moisture content of 1.3%. The extent of powder build-up on the dryer wall increased in the order; WPH- MD << WPH ≤ WPI < WPH + LEC ≤ WPH + CIT. The same trend was observed for the extent of spontaneous primary powder agglomeration, as confirmed by particle size distribution profiles and scanning electron micrographs, where the WPH-MD and WPH + CIT powders displayed the least and greatest extent of agglomeration, respectively. Analysis of elemental surface composition of the powders showed that surface fat, protein and carbohydrate decreased in the order; WPH + CIT > WPH + LEC > WPH > WPH- MD > WPI, WPI > WPH > WPH- MD > WPH + LEC > WPH + CIT and WPH- MD > WPI > WPH > WPH + LEC > WPH + CIT, respectively. Additionally, differences in wettability, surface topography and oil globule distribution within the powder matrix and in reconstituted powders were linked to the emulsifier system used. Inclusion of the WPH-MD conjugate in the formulation of IF powder significantly improved drying behaviour and physicochemical properties of the resultant powder, as evidenced by lowest powder build-up during drying and greatest emulsion quality on reconstitution, compared to the other model formula systems.
Spray-dried emulsions , Infant formula powders , Protein conjugation , Powder stickiness , Emulsion stability , Particle microstructure
Drapala, K. P., Auty, M. A. E., Mulvihill, D. M. and O’Mahony, J. A. (2017) 'Influence of emulsifier type on the spray-drying properties of model infant formula emulsions', Food Hydrocolloids, 69, pp. 56-66. doi:10.1016/j.foodhyd.2016.12.024