Molecular layer doping: non-destructive doping of silicon and germanium

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Long, Brenda
Verni, Giuseppe A.
O'Connell, John
Holmes, Justin D.
Shayesteh, Maryam
O'Connell, Dan
Duffy, Ray
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This work describes a non-destructive method to introduce impurity atoms into silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) using Molecular Layer Doping (MLD). Molecules containing dopant atoms (arsenic) were designed, synthesized and chemically bound in self-limiting monolayers to the semiconductor surface. Subsequent annealing enabled diffusion of the dopant atom into the substrate. Material characterization included assessment of surface analysis (AFM) and impurity and carrier concentrations (ECV). Record carrier concentration levels of arsenic (As) in Si (~5Ã 10^20 atoms/cm3) by diffusion doping have been achieved, and to the best of our knowledge this work is the first demonstration of doping Ge by MLD. Furthermore due to the ever increasing surface to bulk ratio of future devices (FinFets, MugFETs, nanowire-FETS) surface packing spacing requirements of MLD dopant molecules is becoming more relaxed. It is estimated that a molecular spacing of 2 nm and 3 nm is required to achieve doping concentration of 10^20 atoms/cm3 in a 5 nm wide fin and 5 nm diameter nanowire respectively. From a molecular perspective this is readily achievable.
Chemistry , Doping , Molecular layer doping , Silicon , Surface functionalisation
LONG, B., VERNI, G. A., O'CONNELL, J., HOLMES, J. D., SHAYESTEH, M., O'CONNELL, D. & DUFFY, R. (2014) Molecular Layer Doping: Non-destructive doping of silicon and germanium. 2014 20th International Conference on Ion Implantation Technology (IIT). Portland, Oregon, 26 June - 4 July. IEEE, pp. 1-4
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