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Enhancing men's awareness of testicular disorders using a virtual reality intervention: a pre-post pilot study.
Saab, Mohamad M.
Davoren, Martin P.
Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.
Background: The incidence of benign and malignant testicular disorders is on the rise. Three literature reviews and one qualitative study found that men’s awareness of testicular disorders was lacking, and their intentions to seek help for symptoms of testicular disease were low. Objectives: The aim of the study was to enhance men’s awareness of testicular disorders, help-seeking intentions for testicular symptoms, and intention and behavior to feel their testes. Methods: Men aged 18–50 years were recruited from a university and asked to engage in a three-level, educational, virtual reality experience. The Medical Research Council framework guided the development and pilot testing of the intervention. Knowledge, awareness, perceived risk, implementation intentions, help-seeking intentions, and behaviors were measured at pretest (T0), immediately posttest (T1), and 1 month posttest (T2). Results: Data were available from 49 participants. In comparison to T0, a significant increase in knowledge (mean difference [MD] = 3.5, 95% CI [2.8, 4.26]); testicular awareness (MD = 0.2, 95% CI [0.01, 0.41]); implementation intentions (MD = 0.6, 95% CI [0.33, 0.90]); and help-seeking intentions for testicular swelling (MD = 0.3, 95% CI [0.12, 0.51]), lumpiness (MD = 0.3, 95% CI [0.08, 0.46]), and pain (MD = 0.6, 95% CI [0.25, 1.01]) was noted at T1. This increase was maintained at T2. Participants who expressed an intention to feel their testes at T0 were more likely to report performing this behavior at T2. Discussion: The intervention succeeded in promoting knowledge, testicular awareness, implementation intentions, help-seeking intentions, and behaviors. A randomized controlled trial of the Enhancing Men’s Awareness of Testicular Disorders intervention with a larger sample size is warranted.
Awareness , Health promotion , Pilot study , Testicular cancer , Testicular disorders , Virtual reality
Saab, M. M., Landers, M., Cooke, E., Murphy, D., Davoren, M. and Hegarty, J. (2018) 'Enhancing Men's Awareness of Testicular Disorders using a virtual reality intervention: a pre-post pilot study', Nursing Research, 67(5), pp. 349-358. doi:10.1097/NNR.0000000000000303
© 2018, Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Nursing Research. To access the final edited and published work see https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNR.0000000000000303