Roles of the gut virome and mycobiome in faecal microbiota transplantation

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Lam, Siu
Bai, Xiaowu
Shkoporov, Andrey N.
Park, Heekuk
Wu, Xiaojian
Lan, Ping
Zuo, Tao
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Elsevier Ltd.
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Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an innovative approach to treat diseases that are associated with gut dysbiosis, by transferring a healthy stool microbiota to a recipient with disease. Beyond the bacteriome, the human gut also harbours diverse communities of viruses and fungi, collectively known as the virome and the mycobiome. The effect of the virome and the mycobiome on the success of FMT therapy has not been appreciated until recently. In this Review, we summarise the current literature on the effects of the gut virome and mycobiome on the treatment of various diseases with FMT. We discuss the beneficial effects and health concerns of viral and fungal transfer during FMT, and highlight the roles of bacteriophages and Candida species in FMT efficacy. We also summarise the intricate relationships between the gut virome, mycobiome, bacteriome, and host immunity underlying FMT effectiveness. Future efforts should be devoted to understanding the versatile roles and the therapeutic mechanisms of viral and fungal lineages, and their combinations, in different diseases. Harnessing the gut virome, mycobiome, and bacteriome in combination is a promising prospect for the future of FMT and microbiota-based therapies.
Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) , Bacteriome , Virome , Mycobiome , Wellcome Trust
Lam, S., Bai, X., Shkoporov, A. N., Park, H., Wu, X., Lan, P. and Zuo, T. (2022) 'Roles of the gut virome and mycobiome in faecal microbiota transplantation', The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 7(5), pp. 472-484. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00303-4
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