Gut microbiome effects on neuronal excitability and activity: Implications for epilepsy

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Darch, Henry
McCafferty, Cian P.
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Elsevier Inc.
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It is now well established that the bacterial population of the gastrointestinal system, known as the gut microbiome, is capable of influencing the brain and its dependent functions. Links have been demonstrated between the microbiome and a variety of normal and pathological neural functions, including epilepsy. Many of these microbiome-brain links involve the direct or indirect modulation of the excitability and activity of individual neurons by the gut microbiome. Such links may be particularly significant when it comes to microbiome modulation of epilepsy, often considered a disorder of neuronal excitability. In this review we consider the current evidence of a relationship between the gut microbiome and the excitability or activity of neurons in the context of epilepsy. The review focuses particularly on evidence of direct, causal microbiome effects on neuronal excitability or activity, but also considers demonstrations of microbiome to host interactions that are likely to have an indirect influence. While we identify a few common themes, it is apparent that deriving general mechanistic principles of microbiome influence on these parameters in epilepsy will require considerable further study to tease out the many interacting factors, systems, and conditions.
Epilepsy , Microbiome , Excitability , Microbiota-gut-brain axis , Microbiota , Seizure , Paroxysm , Oscillation , Neuronal activity
Darch, H. and McCafferty, C. P. (2022) 'Gut microbiome effects on neuronal excitability and activity: Implications for epilepsy', Neurobiology of Disease, 165, 105629 (9pp). doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2022.105629
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