Adequacy of vitamin D intakes in children and teenagers from the base diet, fortified foods and supplements
Black, Lucinda J.
Kiely, Mairead E.
Cambridge University Press
Objective: To describe vitamin D intakes in children and teenagers and the contribution from supplements and fortified foods in addition to the base diet. Design: Analysis of 7 d weighed food records collected during the Children's and Teens’ National Nutrition Surveys in Ireland. Food composition data for vitamin D were updated from international analytical sources. Setting: Nationally representative cross-sectional dietary surveys. Subjects: Children (n 594; 5–12 years) and teenagers (n 441; 13–17 years). Results: Median vitamin D intakes were 1·9, 2·1 and 2·4 μg/d in 5–8-, 9–12- and 13–17-year-olds, respectively. The prevalence of vitamin D-containing supplement use was 21, 16 and 15 % in 5–8-, 9–12- and 13–17-year-olds and median intakes in users ranged from 6·0 to 6·7 μg/d. The prevalence of inadequate intakes, defined as the percentage with mean daily intakes below the Estimated Average Requirement of 10 μg/d, ranged from 88 to 96 % in supplement users. Foods fortified with vitamin D, mainly breakfast cereals, fat spreads and milk, were consumed by 71, 70 and 63 % of 5–8-, 9–12- and 13–17-year-olds. Non-supplement users who consumed vitamin D-fortified foods had median intakes of 1·9–2·5 μg/d, compared with 1·2–1·4 μg/d in those who did not consume fortified foods. Conclusions: It is currently not possible for children consuming the habitual diet to meet the US Institute of Medicine dietary reference intake for vitamin D. In the absence of nationally representative 25-hydroxyvitamin D data in children, the implications of this observation for prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and health consequences are speculative.
Vitamin D , Intakes , Children
Black, L. J., Walton, J., Flynn, A. and Kiely, M. (2014) 'Adequacy of vitamin D intakes in children and teenagers from the base diet, fortified foods and supplements', Public Health Nutrition, 17(4), pp. 721-731. doi:10.1017/S1368980013000359
© The Authors 2013. Published by Cambridge University Press (CUP) on behalf of The Nutrition Society