Organic functionalisation, doping and characterisation of semiconductor surfaces for future CMOS device applications

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O'Connell, John Joseph
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University College Cork
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Organic Functionalisation, Doping and Characterisation of Semiconductor Surfaces for Future CMOS Device Applications Semiconductor materials have long been the driving force for the advancement of technology since their inception in the mid-20th century. Traditionally, micro-electronic devices based upon these materials have scaled down in size and doubled in transistor density in accordance with the well-known Moore’s law, enabling consumer products with outstanding computational power at lower costs and with smaller footprints. According to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the scaling of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is proceeding at a rapid pace and will reach sub-10 nm dimensions in the coming years. This scaling presents many challenges, not only in terms of metrology but also in terms of the material preparation especially with respect to doping, leading to the moniker “More-than-Moore”. Current transistor technologies are based on the use of semiconductor junctions formed by the introduction of dopant atoms into the material using various methodologies and at device sizes below 10 nm, high concentration gradients become a necessity. Doping, the controlled and purposeful addition of impurities to a semiconductor, is one of the most important steps in the material preparation with uniform and confined doping to form ultra-shallow junctions at source and drain extension regions being one of the key enablers for the continued scaling of devices. Monolayer doping has shown promise to satisfy the need to conformally dope at such small feature sizes. Monolayer doping (MLD) has been shown to satisfy the requirements for extended defect-free, conformal and controllable doping on many materials ranging from the traditional silicon and germanium devices to emerging replacement materials such as III-V compounds This thesis aims to investigate the potential of monolayer doping to complement or replace conventional doping technologies currently in use in CMOS fabrication facilities across the world.
InGaAs , MLD , XPS , SIMS , Monolayer , Doping , Shallow , Silicon , Surface , Functionalisation , Click chemistry , Molecular layer doping , Molecular monolayers
O'Connell, J. J. 2016. Organic functionalisation, doping and characterisation of semiconductor surfaces for future CMOS device applications. PhD Thesis, University College Cork.
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