Competition between Lemna minuta, Lemna minor, and Azolla filiculoides. Growing fast or being steadfast?

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dc.contributor.author Paolacci, Simona
dc.contributor.author Jansen, Marcel A. K.
dc.contributor.author Harrison, Simon
dc.date.accessioned 2018-09-20T15:53:42Z
dc.date.available 2018-09-20T15:53:42Z
dc.date.issued 2018
dc.identifier.citation Paolacci, S., Jansen, M. A. K. and Harrison, S. (2018) 'Competition between Lemna minuta, Lemna minor, and Azolla filiculoides. Growing fast or being steadfast?', Frontiers in Chemistry, 6, 207 (15pp). doi: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00207 en
dc.identifier.volume 6
dc.identifier.startpage 1
dc.identifier.endpage 15
dc.identifier.issn 2296-2646
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/6835
dc.identifier.doi 10.3389/fchem.2018.00207
dc.description.abstract A substantial number of Lemnaceae are invasive outside their natural distribution area. Lemna minuta is considered invasive in several European countries, where it can occur in the same habitat as invasive Azolla filiculoides and native Lemna minor. In this study the presence, abundance and growth rates of all three species were monitored across 24 natural ponds and in a series of mesocosms in order to explore the importance of species invasiveness and habitat invisibility. Field monitoring showed that the distribution of the three species of macrophytes is heterogeneous in space and time. However, the data show no association of nutrient or light levels with plant distribution. Indeed, using reciprocal transplanting experiments it was demonstrated that all species are able to grow in all ponds, even ponds where the species do not naturally occur. It is concluded that distribution of L. minor, L. minuta, and A. filiculoides is not limited by the prevailing physicochemical characteristics of the ponds during the summer period. Remarkably, in these experiments A. filiculoides displayed the highest RGR, and exerted a negative influence on growth rates and surface cover of L. minor and L. minuta. Despite such apparent invasiveness, A. filiculoides was relatively rare in the study area. Rather, the species most abundant was L. minor which has the lowest RGR under field conditions in summer. Therefore, this study shows that the invasiveness of the species during the summer months is not necessarily reflected in the actual distribution pattern in natural ponds. In fact, alien L. minuta and A. filiculoides are under-represented in the monitored area. It is concluded that the interaction of several factors, including growth under winter-conditions and/or dispersal after disturbances, is the major determinant of the abundance and heterogeneous distribution of L. minor, L. minuta, and A. filiculoides in the study area. en
dc.description.sponsorship Irish Research Council (RS/2012/1172) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher Frontiers Media en
dc.relation.uri https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fchem.2018.00207/full
dc.rights © 2018, Paolacci, Jansen and harrison. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. en
dc.rights.uri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subject Lemnaceae en
dc.subject Azolla en
dc.subject Invasive species en
dc.subject Competiton en
dc.subject Distribution pattern en
dc.title Competition between Lemna minuta, Lemna minor, and Azolla filiculoides. Growing fast or being steadfast? en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Simona Paolacci, Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University College of Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 Email: spaolacci@ucc.ie en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.description.version Published Version en
dc.contributor.funder Irish Research Council
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle Frontiers in Chemistry en
dc.internal.IRISemailaddress spaolacci@ucc.ie en
dc.identifier.articleid 207


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© 2018, Paolacci, Jansen and harrison. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2018, Paolacci, Jansen and harrison. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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