Dietary conjugated linoleic acid-enriched cheeses influence the levels of circulating n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in humans

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Murru, Elisabetta
Carta, Gianfranca
Cordeddu, Lina
Melis, Maria Paola
Desogus, Erika
Ansar, Hastimansooreh
Chilliard, Yves
Ferlay, Anne
Stanton, Catherine
Coakley, Mairead
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n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) directly and indirectly regulate lipid metabolism, energy balance and the inflammatory response. We investigated changes to the n-3 HUFA score of healthy adults, induced by different types and amounts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched (ENCH) cheeses consumed for different periods of time, compared to dietary fish oil (FO) pills (500 mg, each containing 100 mg of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acidsEPA+DHA) or -linolenic acid (ALA)-rich linseed oil (4 g, containing 2 g of ALA). A significant increase in the n-3 HUFA score was observed, in a dose-dependent manner, after administration of the FO supplement. In terms of the impact on the n-3 HUFA score, the intake of ENCH cheese (90 g/day) for two or four weeks was equivalent to the administration of one or two FO pills, respectively. Conversely, the linseed oil intake did not significantly impact the n-3 HUFA score. Feeding ENCH cheeses from different sources (bovine, ovine and caprine) for two months improved the n-3 HUFA score by increasing plasma DHA, and the effect was proportional to the CLA content in the cheese. We suggest that the improved n-3 HUFA score resulting from ENCH cheese intake may be attributed to increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-) activity. This study demonstrates that natural ENCH cheese is an alternative nutritional source of n-3 HUFA in humans.
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) , Cheese , Ruminant , Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) , Fatty acids (FA) , Plasma , Clinical trial
Murru, E., Carta, G., Cordeddu, L., Melis, M., Desogus, E., Ansar, H., Chilliard, Y., Ferlay, A., Stanton, C., Coakley, M., Ross, R., Piredda, G., Addis, M., Mele, M., Cannelli, G., Banni, S. and Manca, C. (2018) 'Dietary conjugated linoleic acid-enriched cheeses influence the levels of circulating n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in humans', International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(6), 1730 (16pp). doi: 10.3390/ijms19061730
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