Extensive bacteriocin gene shuffling in the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex reveals gallocin D with activity against vancomycin resistant enterococci
O'Connor, Paula M.
Ross, R. Paul
Streptococcus gallolyticus LL009 produces gallocin D, a narrow spectrum two component bacteriocin with potent activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Gallocin D is distinct from gallocin A, a separate two component bacteriocin produced by S. gallolyticus. Although the gene clusters encoding gallocin A and gallocin D have a high degree of gene synteny, the structural genes are highly variable and appear to have undergone gene shuffling with other streptococcal species. Gallocin D was analysed in laboratory-based experiments. The mature peptides are 3,343 ± 1 Da and 3,019 ± 1 Da and could be readily synthesized and display activity against a vancomycin resistant Enterococcus strain EC300 with a MIC value of 1.56 µM. Importantly, these bacteriocins could contribute to the ability of S. gallolyticus to colonize the colon where they have been associated with colorectal cancer.
Streptococcus bovis , Streptococcus equinus , Gallocin D , Streptococcus gallolyticus LL009 , Vancomycin resistant enterococci
Hill, D., O’Connor, P. M., Altermann, E., Day, L., Hill, C., Stanton, C. and Ross, R. P. (2020) ‘Extensive bacteriocin gene shuffling in the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex reveals gallocin D with activity against vancomycin resistant enterococci’, Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13431 (11pp). doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-70328-z
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