Whole-metagenome-sequencing-based community profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina berries withered in two post-harvest conditions
Supplemental data 1
Supplemental data 2
Supplemental data 3
Supplemental data 4
Tornielli, Giovanni Battista
Felis, Giovanna E.
Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina grape forms the basis for the production of unique wines, such as Amarone, whose distinctive sensory features are strongly linked to the post-harvest grape withering process. Indeed, this process increases sugar concentration and changes must characteristics. While microorganisms involved in must fermentation have been widely investigated, few data are available on the microbiota of withered grapes. Thus, in this paper, a whole metagenome sequencing (WMS) approach was used to analyse the microbial consortium associated with Corvina berries at the end of the withering process performed in two different conditions (“traditional withering,” TW or “accelerated withering,” AW), and to unveil whether changes of drying parameters could have an impact on microbial diversity. Samples of healthy undamaged berries were collected and washed, to recover microorganisms from the surface and avoid contamination with grapevine genetic material. Isolated DNA was sequenced and the data obtained were analyzed with several bioinformatics methods. The eukaryotic community was mainly composed by members of the phylum Ascomycota, including Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Dothideomycetes. Moreover, the distribution of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium (class Eurotiomycetes) varied between the withered berry samples. Instead, Botryotinia, Saccharomyces, and other wine technologically useful microorganisms were relatively scarce in both samples. For prokaryotes, 25 phyla were identified, nine of which were common to both conditions. Environmental bacteria belonging to the class Gammaproteobacteria were dominant and, in particular, the TW sample was characterized by members of the family Pseudomonadaceae, while members of the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated the AW sample, in addition to Sphyngobacteria and Clostridia. Finally, the binning procedure discovered 15 putative genomes which dominated the microbial community of the two samples, and included representatives of genera Erwinia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Paenibacillus, and of orders Lactobacillales and Actinomycetales. These results provide insights into the microbial consortium of Corvina withered berries and reveal relevant variations attributable to post-harvest withering conditions, underling how WMS could open novel perspectives in the knowledge and management of the withering process of Corvina, with an impact on the winemaking of important Italian wines.
Withered grape , Post-harvest , Microbiome , Microbial , Diversity , Yeasts , Moulds , Bacteria , Metagenomics
Salvetti, E., Campanaro, S., Campedelli, I., Fracchetti, F., Gobbi, A., Tornielli, G. B., Torriani, S. and Felis, G. E. (2016) 'Whole-Metagenome-Sequencing-Based Community Profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Corvina Berries Withered in Two Post-harvest Conditions', Frontiers in Microbiology, 7(937). doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00937
© 2016 Salvetti, Campanaro, Campedelli, Fracchetti, Gobbi, Tornielli, Torriani and Felis. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.