Electroporation of a nanoparticle-associated DNA vaccine induces higher inflammation and immunity compared to its delivery with microneedle patches in pigs

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Bernelin-Cottet, Cindy
Urien, Céline
McCaffrey, Joanne
Collins, Damien
Donadei, Agnese
McDaid, Dennis
Jakob, Virginie
Barnier-Quer, Christophe
Collin, Nicolas
Bouguyon, Edwige
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DNA vaccination is an attractive technology, based on its well-established manufacturing process, safety profile, adaptability to rapidly combat pandemic pathogens, and stability at ambient temperature; however an optimal delivery method of DNA remains to be determined. As pigs are a relevant model for humans, we comparatively evaluated the efficiency of vaccine DNA delivery in vivo to pigs using dissolvable microneedle patches, intradermal inoculation with needle (ID), surface electroporation (EP), with DNA associated or not to cationic poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (NPs). We used a luciferase encoding plasmid (pLuc) as a reporter and vaccine plasmids encoding antigens from the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), a clinically-significant swine arterivirus. Patches were successful at inducing luciferase expression in skin although at lower level than EP. EP induced the cutaneaous recruitment of granulocytes, of MHC2posCD172Apos myeloid cells and type 1 conventional dendritic cells, in association with local production of IL-1β, IL-8 and IL-17; these local responses were more limited with ID and undetectable with patches. The addition of NP to EP especially promoted the recruitment of the MHC2posCD172Apos CD163int and CD163neg myeloid subsets. Notably we obtained the strongest and broadest IFNγ T-cell response against a panel of PRRSV antigens with DNA + NPs delivered by EP, whereas patches and ID were ineffective. The anti-PRRSV IgG responses were the highest with EP administration independently of NPs, mild with ID, and undetectable with patches. These results contrast with the immunogenicity and efficacy previously induced in mice with patches. This study concludes that successful DNA vaccine administration in skin can be achieved in pigs with electroporation and patches, but only the former induces local inflammation, humoral and cellular immunity, with the highest potency when NPs were used. This finding shows the importance of evaluating the delivery and immunogenicity of DNA vaccines beyond the mouse model in a preclinical model relevant to human such as pig and reveals that EP with DNA combined to NP induces strong immunogenicity.
DNA vaccines , Skin , Pig model , Dissolvable microneedle , Electroporation , PLGA nanoparticles
Bernelin-Cottet, C., Urien, C., McCaffrey, J., Collins, D., Donadei, A., McDaid, D., Jakob, V., Barnier-Quer, C., Collin, N., Bouguyon, E. and Bordet, E., 2019. Electroporation of a nanoparticle-associated DNA vaccine induces higher inflammation and immunity compared to its delivery with microneedle patches in pigs. Journal of Controlled Release. 308, pp. 14-28. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.06.041