Existing and future strategies to manipulate the gut microbiota with diet as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric disorders

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Ross, Fiona C.
Mayer, Dylan E.
Gupta, Arpana
Gill, Chris I. R.
Del Rio, Daniele
Cryan, John F.
Lavelle, Aonghus
Ross, R. Paul
Stanton, Catherine
Mayer, Emeran A.
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Elsevier Inc.
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Nutrition and diet quality play key roles in preventing and slowing cognitive decline and have been linked to multiple brain disorders. This review compiles available evidence from preclinical studies and clinical trials on the impact of nutrition and interventions regarding major psychiatric conditions and some neurological disorders. We emphasize the potential role of diet-related microbiome alterations in these effects and highlight commonalities between various brain disorders related to the microbiome. Despite numerous studies shedding light on these findings, there are still gaps in our understanding due to the limited availability of definitive human trial data firmly establishing a causal link between a specific diet and microbially mediated brain functions and symptoms. The positive impact of certain diets on the microbiome and cognitive function is frequently ascribed with the anti-inflammatory effects of certain microbial metabolites or a reduction of proinflammatory microbial products. We also critically review recent research on pro- and prebiotics and nondietary interventions, particularly fecal microbiota transplantation. The recent focus on diet in relation to brain disorders could lead to improved treatment outcomes with combined dietary, pharmacological, and behavioral interventions.
Autism spectrum disorder , Brain-gut-microbiome (BGM) system/axis , Cognitive decline , Depression , Dietary intervention , Dysbiosis , Endotoxemia , Mediterranean diet , Nutritional psychiatry , Serotonin , Short-chain fatty acids , Tryptophan metabolites
Ross, F. C., Mayer, D. E., Gupta, A., Gill, C. I., Del Rio, D., Cryan, J. F., Lavelle, A., Ross, R. P., Stanton, C. and Mayer, E. A. (2024) 'Existing and future strategies to manipulate the gut microbiota with diet as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric disorders', Biological Psychiatry, 95(4), pp.348-360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2023.10.018
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