State-space modelling of the flight behaviour of a soaring bird provides new insights to migratory strategies

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dc.contributor.author Pirotta, Enrico
dc.contributor.author Katzner, Todd
dc.contributor.author Miller, Tricia A.
dc.contributor.author Duerr, Adam E.
dc.contributor.author Braham, Melissa A.
dc.contributor.author New, Leslie
dc.date.accessioned 2018-08-13T11:22:37Z
dc.date.available 2018-08-13T11:22:37Z
dc.date.issued 2018-06-09
dc.identifier.citation Pirotta, E., Katzner, T., Miller, T. A., Duerr, A. E., Braham, M. A. and New, L. (2018) 'State-space modelling of the flight behaviour of a soaring bird provides new insights to migratory strategies', Functional Ecology. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.13180 en
dc.identifier.startpage 1
dc.identifier.endpage 11
dc.identifier.issn 0269-8463
dc.identifier.issn 1365-2435
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10468/6599
dc.identifier.doi 10.1111/1365-2435.13180
dc.description.abstract Characterising the spatiotemporal variation of animal behaviour can elucidate the way individuals interact with their environment and allocate energy. Increasing sophistication of tracking technologies paired with novel analytical approaches allows the characterisation of movement dynamics even when an individual is not directly observable. In this study, high-resolution movement data collected via global positioning system (GPS) tracking in three dimensions were paired with topographical information and used in a Bayesian state-space model to describe the flight modes of migrating golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in eastern North America. Our model identified five functional behavioural states, two of which were previously undescribed variations on thermal soaring. The other states comprised gliding, perching and orographic soaring. States were discriminated by movement features in the horizontal (step length and turning angle) and vertical (change in altitude) planes and by the association with ridgelines promoting wind deflection. Tracked eagles spent 2%, 31%, 38%, 9% and 20% of their daytime in directed thermal soaring, gliding, convoluted thermal soaring, perching and orographic soaring, respectively. The analysis of the relative occurrence of these flight modes highlighted yearly, seasonal, age, individual and sex differences in flight strategy and performance. Particularly, less energy-efficient orographic soaring was more frequent in autumn, when thermals were less available. Adult birds were also better at optimising energy efficiency than subadults. Our approach represents the first example of a state-space model for bird flight mode using altitude data in conjunction with horizontal locations and is applicable to other flying organisms where similar data are available. The ability to describe animal movements in a three-dimensional habitat is critical to advance our understanding of the functional processes driving animalsâ decisions. A plain language summary is available for this article. en
dc.description.sponsorship U.S. Department of Energy (Grant DEEE0003538); U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Pennsylvania SWG grants T-12 and T47-R-1) en
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf en
dc.language.iso en en
dc.publisher John Wiley & Sons, Inc. en
dc.rights © 2018, the Authors. Functional Ecology © British Ecological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Inc. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Pirotta, E., Katzner, T., Miller, T. A., Duerr, A. E., Braham, M. A. and New, L. (2018) 'State-space modelling of the flight behaviour of a soaring bird provides new insights to migratory strategies', Functional Ecology. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.13180, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.13180. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. en
dc.subject 3D states en
dc.subject Hidden state model en
dc.subject Markov chain Monte Carlo en
dc.subject Movement ecology en
dc.subject Raptor en
dc.subject Subsidised flight en
dc.subject GPS-GSM telemetry en
dc.title State-space modelling of the flight behaviour of a soaring bird provides new insights to migratory strategies en
dc.type Article (peer-reviewed) en
dc.internal.authorcontactother Enrico Pirotta, Occasional Staff, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. +353-21-490-3000 en
dc.internal.availability Full text available en
dc.check.info Access to this article is restricted until 12 months after publication by request of the publisher. en
dc.check.date 2019-06-09
dc.date.updated 2018-08-13T10:55:12Z
dc.description.version Accepted Version en
dc.internal.rssid 449387437
dc.contributor.funder U.S. Department of Energy en
dc.contributor.funder U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service en
dc.contributor.funder Lindbergh Foundation en
dc.contributor.funder West Virginia University en
dc.contributor.funder U.S. Geological Survey en
dc.description.status Peer reviewed en
dc.identifier.journaltitle Functional Ecology en
dc.internal.copyrightchecked Yes en
dc.internal.licenseacceptance Yes en
dc.internal.bibliocheck Check for vol. / issue / page numbers. Amend citation as necessary.


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