A perspective on pre-eclampsia and neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring: does maternal inflammation play a role?

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Date
2018-11-02
Authors
Maher, Gillian M.
McCarthy, Fergus P.
McCarthy, Cathal M.
Kenny, Louise C.
Kearney, Patricia M.
Khashan, Ali S.
O'Keeffe, Gerard W.
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Elsevier Ltd.
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Abstract
Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal death and maternal and perinatal morbidity. Whilst the clinical manifestations of pre-eclampsia often occur in late pregnancy, the molecular events leading into the onset of this disease are thought to originate in early pregnancy and result in insufficient placentation. Although the causative molecular basis of pre-eclampsia remains poorly understood, maternal inflammation is recognised as a core clinical feature. While the adverse effects of pre-eclampsia on maternal and fetal health in pregnancy is well-recognised, the long-term impact of pre-eclampsia exposure on the risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in exposed offspring is a topic of on-going debate. In particular, a recent systematic review has reported an association between exposure to pre-eclampsia and increased risk of ASD, however the molecular basis of this association is unknown. Here we review recent evidence for; 1) maternal inflammation in pre-eclampsia; 2) epidemiological evidence for alterations in neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring exposed to pre-eclampsia; 3) long-term changes in the brains of offspring exposed to pre-eclampsia; and 4) how maternal inflammation may lead to altered neurodevelopmental outcomes in pre-eclampsia exposed offspring. Finally, we discuss the implications of this for the development of future studies in this field.
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Keywords
Pre-eclampsia , Autism , Behaviour , Maternal , Inflammation , Placenta , Cytokine
Citation
Maher, G. M., McCarthy, F. P., McCarthy, C. M., Kenny, L. C., Kearney, P. M., Khashan, A. S. and O'Keeffe, G. W. (2018) 'A perspective on pre-eclampsia and neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring: does maternal inflammation play a role?', International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience. doi:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2018.10.004