Iron, iodine and vitamin D deficiencies during pregnancy - epidemiology, risk factors and developmental impacts

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Kiely, Mairead E.
McCarthy, Elaine K.
Hennessy, Áine
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Cambridge University Press
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Micronutrient deficiency persists throughout the world, and while the burden is higher in low resource settings, it is also prevalent in wealthy countries, a phenomenon termed â hidden hungerâ . Due to their high requirements for vitamins and minerals relative to their energy intake, young women and children are particularly vulnerable to hidden hunger. As they share several risk factors and impact on overlapping outcomes, we consider how deficiency of iron, iodine and vitamin D can have profound impacts on perinatal health and infant development. We review the epidemiology of these micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy, including social, environmental and dietary risk factors. We identify the main challenges in defining nutritional status of these nutrients using validated diagnostic criteria linked with meaningful clinical outcomes. Public health strategies are urgently required to improve the overall health and nutritional status of women of reproductive age. Obesity prevention and early detection of malnutrition with standardised screening methods would detect pregnant women at increased risk of iron deficiency. Development of sensitive, individual biomarkers of iodine status are required to protect maternal health and fetal/infant brain development. Risk assessments of vitamin D requirements during pregnancy need to be revisited from the perspective of fetal and neonatal requirements. International consensus on standardised approaches to micronutrient assessment, analysis and reporting as well as sensitive, clinically-validated infant and child neuro-behavioural outcomes will enable progression of useful observational and intervention studies.
Iron , Iodine , Vitamin D , Pregnancy , Malnutrition , Deficiency , Hidden hunger
Kiely, M. E., McCarthy, E. K. and Hennessy, Á. (2021) 'Iron, iodine and vitamin D deficiencies during pregnancy - epidemiology, risk factors and developmental impacts', Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. doi: 10.1017/S0029665121001944
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